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Citations

1 "The Biggest Beef Recall Ever," The New York Times, editorial, 21 February 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/21/opinion/21thu1.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=tainted+meat&st=nyt&oref=slogin, accessed 25 February 2008.
2 "Carry A. Nation," online exhibit, Kansas State Historical Society, http://www.kshs.org/exhibits/carry/carry2.htm, accessed 7 March 2008.
3 "Carry Nation," America: 1900, The American Experience, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/peopleevents/pande4.html, accessed 7 March 2008.
4 "Carry A. Nation," online exhibit, Kansas State Historical Society, http://www.kshs.org/exhibits/carry/carry2.htm, accessed 7 March 2008.
5 Mary Church Terrell, "The Progress of Colored Women," address delivered before the National American Woman's Suffrage Association at the Columbia Theater, Washington, D.C., 18 February 1898, on the occasion of its fiftieth anniversary (Washington, D.C.: Smith Brothers, printers, 1898), full text available online through the African-American Pamphlet Collection, Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/rbaapcbib:@field(NUMBER+@band(rbaapc+29101))::, accessed 7 March 2008].
6 David Lehman, "Colossal Ode: Without Emma Lazarus' timeless poem, Lady Liberty would be just another statue," Smithsonian.com, 1 April 2004, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/10012361.html, accessed 7 March 2008.
7 "Carry Nation," America: 1900, The American Experience, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/peopleevents/pande4.html, accessed 7 March 2008.
8 See Helen Rounds, "Reform Journalism, Exposés, and Crusading," in American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices, eds. William David Sloan and Lisa Mullikin (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2002), 224.
9 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 600.
10 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:511.
11 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:511.
12 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:511.
13 See Robert C. Kennedy, "Christmas Settlement-Workers One Hundred Years Ago, and To-Day," Harper's Weekly, http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseByDateCartoon.asp?Month=December&Date=11, accessed 5 March 2008.
14 Mary Ann Johnson, "Hull House," The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, 2005, http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/615.html, accessed 5 March 2008.
15 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:513.
16 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:573.
17 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:573.
18 Richard F. Hamm, Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment: Temperance Reform, Legal Culture, and the Polity, 1880-1920 (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 25.
19 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:513.
20 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:516.
21 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 609.
22 There are a number of attributions for this quote. See: "Hell is full of good meanings and wishings," Jacula Prudentum; "Do not be troubled by Saint Bernard's saying that hell is full of good intentions and wills." Francis de Sales, Spiritual Letters, Letter xii. (Translated by the author of "A Dominican Artist,") 1605; "Hell is paved with good intentions," Samuel Johnson, Life of Johnson (Boswell), 46 Vol. v. Chap. ix. 1775, in John Bartlett, comp. Familiar Quotations, 10th ed, rev. and enl. by Nathan Haskell Dole (Boston: Little, Brown, 1919; Bartleby.com, 2000), archived at Bartleby, http://www.bartleby.com/100/, accessed 21 February 2008.
23 "Carry Nation," America: 1900, The American Experience, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/peopleevents/pande4.html, accessed 7 March 2008.
24 "Carry A. Nation," online exhibit, Kansas State Historical Society, http://www.kshs.org/exhibits/carry/carry2.htm, accessed 7 March 2008.
25 Alice Paul, New York World, 1919, quoted in Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (New York: Morrow, 1984), 159-60.
26 Mary Church Terrell, "The Progress of Colored Women," address delivered before the National American Woman's Suffrage Association at the Columbia Theater, Washington, D.C., 18 February 1898, on the occasion of its fiftieth anniversary (Washington, D.C.: Smith Brothers, printers, 1898), full text available online through the African-American Pamphlet Collection, Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/rbaapcbib:@field(NUMBER+@band(rbaapc+29101))::, accessed 7 March 2008].
27 John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1955), 120.
28 John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1955), 44.
29 John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1955), 167.
30 See "Chinese exclusion," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001-07), archived at Bartleby, http://www.bartleby.com/65/, accessed 3 March 2008.
31 Helen F. Eckerson, Immigration and National Origins," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 367, The New Immigration (September 1966), pp. 4-14.
32 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 608.
33 See Robert C. Kennedy, "Christmas Settlement-Workers One Hundred Years Ago, and To-Day," Harper's Weekly, http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseByDateCartoon.asp?Month=December&Date=11, accessed 5 March 2008]; Mary Ann Johnson, "Hull House," The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, 2005, http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/615.html, accessed 5 March 2008].
34 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:511.
35 Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910), 91-100.
36 Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910), 91-100.
37 Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910), 91-100.
38 Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910), 91-100.
39 Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910), 91-100.
40 Robert C. Kennedy, "Christmas Settlement-Workers One Hundred Years Ago, and To-Day," Harper's Weekly, http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseByDateCartoon.asp?Month=December&Date=11, accessed 5 March 2008.
41 President William McKinley, remarks to a Methodist Delegation, 21 November 1899, from General James Rusling, "Interview with President McKinley," The Christian Advocate, New York, 22 January 1903, 17.
42 See Paul Kramer, "The Water Cure: Debating torture and counterinsurgency—a century ago," New Yorker, 25 February 2008, 38-43.
43 Theodore Roosevelt to H.K. Love, 24 November 1900, and Theodore Roosevelt to Edmund R. O. von Mach, 7 November 1914, both quoted in David H. Burton, "Theodore Roosevelt: Confident Imperialist," The Review of Politics 23:3 (July 1961), 356-7.
44 Mark Twain interview, 6 October 1900, quoted in William M. Gibson, "Mark Twain and Howells: Anti-Imperialists," The New England Quarterly 20:4 (December 1947), 444-5.
45 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:599.
46 Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black/White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), 391.
47 Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black/White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), 391.
48 Quoted in Jack Beatty, The Rascal King: The Life and Times of James Michael Curley (1874-1958) (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2000), 178-9.
49 See Helen Rounds, "Reform Journalism, Exposés, and Crusading," in American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices, eds. William David Sloan and Lisa Mullikin (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2002), 224.
50 See Helen Rounds, "Reform Journalism, Exposés, and Crusading," in American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices, eds. William David Sloan and Lisa Mullikin (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2002), pp. 219-228.
51 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:513.
52 George Kibbe Turner, "The City of Chicago: A Study of the Great Immoralities," McClure's, April 1907, reprinted in The Muckrakers, eds. Arthur and Lila Weinberg (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001), pp. 389-407.
53 James Diedrick, "The Jungle," The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, Chicago Historical Society, 2005, http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/679.html, accessed 5 March 2008.
54 Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (1906; New York: Dover Publications Inc., 2001), 112.
55 Upton Sinclair, Cosmopolitan Magazine, October 1906, quoted in Robert W. McChesney, Introduction, The Brass Check: A Study of American Journalism (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003), x.
56 Jacb Riis, How the Other Half Lives (New York: Scribner's Sons, 1890); 210.
57 Robert Hunter, Poverty (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1904).
58 Robert Hunter, Poverty (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1904).
59 Esther Tarbell to Ida Tarbell, 6 August 1893, IMT Collection, Tarbell, Esther McCullough file, Allegheny College Library, Meadville, Pennsylvania, quoted in Greg Gross, "'The Explosions of Our Fine Idealistic Undertakings': The Staff Breakup of McClure's Magazine," 1997, available online through Allegheny College, http://tarbell.allegheny.edu/mctable.html, accessed 5 March 2008.
60 Esther Tarbell to Ida Tarbell, 6 August 1893, IMT Collection, Tarbell, Esther McCullough file, Allegheny College Library, Meadville, Pennsylvania, quoted in Greg Gross, "'The Explosions of Our Fine Idealistic Undertakings': The Staff Breakup of McClure's Magazine," 1997, available online through Allegheny College, http://tarbell.allegheny.edu/mctable.html, accessed 5 March 2008.
61 Ray Stannard Baker, quoted in Peter Gay, Schnitzler's Century: The Making of Middle-Class Culture, 1815-1914, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2002), 283.
62 Table 1.2, "Undergraduate Enrollment by Sex at the University of California, Berkeley, between 1870 and 1915," in Maresi Nerad, The Academic Kitchen: A Social History of Gender Stratification at the University of California, Berkeley (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999), 22.
63 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:533.
64 William J. Reese, America's Public Schools: From the Common School to "No Child Left Behind"(Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 182.
65 Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities, introduction available online through History Matters, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5732/, accessed 7 March 2008.
66 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:577.
67 "As to Government by Injunction," New York Times, 17 August 1896.
68 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:574.
69 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:575.
70 See J. Chal Vinson, "Thomas Nast and the American Political Scene," American Quarterly 9:3 (Autumn, 1957), pp. 337-344; Robert C. Kennedy, "Cartoon of the Day," Harpweek, http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseByDateCartoon.asp?Month=August&Date=19, accessed 22 February 2008.
71 Bruce M. Stave, "Boss Tweed In Court: A Documentary History," A Guide to the Microfilm Edition of Research Collections in Urban History and Urban Studies, University Publications of America http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/10846_BossTweedinCourt.pdf, accessed 4 March 2008.
72 See "The History of Labor Day," United States Department of Labor, http://www.dol.gov/opa/aboutdol/laborday.htm, accessed 22 February 2008.
73 Walter John Raymond, Dictionary of Politics: Selected American and Foreign Political and Legal Terms (Richmond, VA: Brunswick Publishing Corporation, 1992), 417; on the 2004 election, see Federal Election Commission, "2004 Election Results," p. 3, available online at http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe2004/tables.pdf, accessed 24 March 2008; on the Prohibition Party schism, see "In Search of Voters, Prohibition Candidate Runs Dry," New York Times, 1 October 2004, available online at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/01/politics/campaign/01candidate.html, accessed 24 March 2008.
74 "History & Culture," Statue of Liberty National Monument, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, http://www.nps.gov/stli/historyculture/index.htm, accessed 22 February 2008.
75 Virginia Yans-McLaughlin and Marjorie Lightman, Ellis Island and the Peopling of America (New York: The New York Press. 1990), 59.
76 E. Susan Barber, "One Hundred Years toward Suffrage: An Overview," National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection, Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/naw/nawstime.html, accessed 22 February 2008.
77 Transportation Research Board, Managing Speed: Review of Current Practice for Setting and Enforcing Speed Limits (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998), 80; "The way to set speed limits," Consumers' Research Magazine 81:12 (December 1998), 26-31.
78 See Robert C. Kennedy, "Christmas Settlement-Workers One Hundred Years Ago, and To-Day," Harper's Weekly, http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseByDateCartoon.asp?Month=December&Date=11, accessed 5 March 2008.
79 Biography of Lucy Ware Webb Hayes, The White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/lh19.html, accessed 5 March 2008.
80 Quoted in David C. Hanson, Virginia Western Community College, "History 122 Research Document: A Long Time Coming: Alice Paul and the 19th Amendment," 2004, http://www.vw.vccs.edu/vwhansd/his122/Paul_A2.html, accessed 24 March 2008; Jane Ganahl, "HBO Film a Powerful Rallying Cry for Women to Vote," San Francisco Chronicle, 24 October 2004, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/10/24/LVG1J9CIIO1.DTL, accessed 24 March 2008.
81 William L. Riordon, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall (New York: Knopf, 1948), 3-4.
82 Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910), 91-92.
83 John Dewey, Characters and Events: Popular Essays in Social and Political Philosophy (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1929), 841-55.
84 Esther Tarbell to Ida Tarbell, 6 August 1893, IMT Collection, Tarbell, Esther McCullough file, Allegheny College Library, Meadville, Pennsylvania, quoted in Greg Gross, "'The Explosions of Our Fine Idealistic Undertakings': The Staff Breakup of McClure's Magazine," 1997, available online through Allegheny College, http://tarbell.allegheny.edu/mctable.html, accessed 5 March 2008.
85 Theodore Roosevelt, "The Man with the Muck Rake," delivered 14 April 1906, archived at American Rhetoric, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/teddyrooseveltmuckrake.htm, from Graham, John, Great American Speeches, 1898-1963 (New York: Meredith Corporation), 1970.
86 Ray Stannard Baker, quoted in Peter Gay, Schnitzler's Century: The Making of Middle-Class Culture, 1815-1914, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2002), 283.
87 "Carry A. Nation," online exhibit, Kansas State Historical Society, http://www.kshs.org/exhibits/carry/carry2.htm, accessed 7 March 2008.
88 Full text available online through the African-American Pamphlet Collection, Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/rbaapcbib:@field(NUMBER+@band(rbaapc+29101))::, accessed 7 March 2008.
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