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by Dante Alighieri
Analysis: Allusions When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.
Literary and Philosophical References Timaeus ( Par. IV, 49) Saint Thomas Aquinas ( Par. X, 99 and throughout Cantos X – XIII) Saint Francis ( Par. XI, 49-117) Saint Dominic ( Par. XII, 52-105) Saint Peter Damian ( Par. XXI, 121) Saint Bernard ( Par. XXXI, 101) – throughout cantos XXXI-XXXIII Virgil, Aeneid ( Par. VIII, 8-9), ( Par. IX, 97-98), ( Par. XV, 25-27) Biblical References Nebuchadnezzar ( Par. IV, 14) Rahab ( Par. IX, 115) Solomon ( Par. XIII, 91-102, and throughout Cantos XIII and XIV) Jesus Christ ( Par. XXIII, 20, and throughout) The Virgin Mary ( Par. XXIII, 111, and throughout) Saint Peter ( Par. XXIV, 34-36, and throughout) Saint James ( Par. XXV, 18, and throughout Cantos XXV-XXVI) Saint John ( Par. XXV, 112-114, and throughout) Adam ( Par. XXVI, 83, and throughout) Daniel ( Par. XXIX, 132) Historical Figures Beatrice Portinari ( Par. I, 46, and throughout) Justinian ( Par. VI, 10, and through Canto VI) Sanctus hymn: ( Par. VII, 1-3) Charles Martel ( Par. VIII, 49-51) Cacciaguida ( Par. XV, 135, and throughout Cantos XV-XVIII) Emperor Trajan ( Par. XX, 44-48, and throughout Canto XX) Ripheus ( Par. XX, 69-72, and throughout Canto XX) Henry VIII of Luxembourg ( Par. XXX, 136)
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