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Plant Biology
Plant Biology

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Alternation of Generations Questions

1. What kind of reproductive unit do gametophytes make?

a. Sporophytes
b. Spores
c. Gamete
d. Sori
e. Seeds

2. Which plant life cycles have alternation of generations?

a. Bryophytes
b. Ferns
c. Gymnosperms
d. Angiosperms
e. All plants have alternation of generations.

3. Which of the following plants do NOT have sporophytes as their dominant generation?

a. Bryophytes
b. Ferns
c. Gymnosperms
d. Angiosperms
e. All of the above have dominant sporophytes.

4. Which of the below statements is false?

a. A new plant can grow from a lone spore.
b. A new plant can grow from a seed.
c. A new plant can grow from just a sperm.
d. A new plant can grow on top of a gametophyte.
e. A new plant can grow from asexual reproduction.

5. Which plants make seeds?

a. All plants
b. Ferns
c. Ferns and gymnosperms
d. Gymnosperms and angiosperms

Primary and Secondary Growth Questions

1. Which meristems are responsible for secondary growth?

a. The vascular cambium and the cork cambium
b. The vascular cambium and the shoot apical meristem
c. The shoot apical meristem and the root apical meristem
d. The cork cambium and the root apical meristem
e. The shoot apical meristem and the cork cambium

2. Bark is made out of which type of vascular tissue?

a. Primary xylem
b. Primary phloem
c. Secondary xylem
d. Secondary phloem
e. Both primary and secondary phloem

3. Where are apical meristems located?

a. On the sides of the plant
b. At the tips of both the shoots and roots
c. On the leaves
d. In the shoots only
e. In the roots only

4. Which of the following statements about primary and secondary growth is true?

a. Primary growth adds to the length of the plant and secondary growth adds to the width of the plant
b. Once secondary growth starts, primary growth stops.
c. Primary growth originates at the cork cambium.
d. Secondary growth originates at the apical meristems.
e. Primary growth is the only important type of growth in plants.

5. Which of the following is not an important function of roots?

a. Anchoring the plant into the ground
b. Absorbing water and nutrients
c. Storing nutrients
d. Associating with soil microbes in symbiotic relationships
e. Photosynthesis

Plant Tissues Questions

1. Which type of cells are the most common in plants?

a. Parenchyma
b. Collenchyma
c. Sclerenchyma
d. Epidermal cells
e. Guard cells

2. Which tissue is the outermost layer on a plant?

a. Xylem
b. Phloem
c. Ground tissue
d. Leaf tissue
e. Epidermis

3. Cells that make up the xylem are called:

a. Tracheids and sclerids
b. Tracheids and vessel elements
c. Sclerids and fibers
d. Sieve and vessel elements
e. Sieve elements

4. The cells involved in wound repair in a plant are:

a. Fibers
b. Sclerids
c. Parenchyma
d. Collenchyma
e. Sclerenchyma

5. Which cells are alive when functional?

a. Tracheids
b. Vessel elements
c. Fibers
d. Sclerids
e. Sieve elements

Transportaion in the Plant Questions

1. Which pathway restricts particles to the cell wall?

a. The plasmodesmata
b. The stomata
c. The trichomes
d. The symplast.
e. The apoplast

2. Which cells are responsible for opening and closing the stomata?

a. The stomata themselves
b. Guard cells
c. Xylem cells
d. Phloem cells
e. The plasmodesmata

3. The main force behind water movement in plants is:

a. Positive pressure
b. Advection
c. Convection
d. Transpiration
e. Evaporation

4. Which of the following is not true about translocation?

a. Translocation moves sugars in many directions.
b. Translocation uses phloem.
c. Active transport is not used in translocation.
d. Water pressure causes cells carrying sugar to move around the plant.
e. Translocation takes sugar to storage organs.

Leaf Structure Questions

1. Why are stomata concentrated on the bottom of a leaf instead of the top?

a. The top of the leaf is reserved for photosynthesis machinery.
b. Having stomata on the bottom of a leaf limits water loss since the sun shines on top of the leaf.
c. Having stomata on the bottom of a leaf lets in fewer pathogens.
d. It is easier to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide when the stomata are on the bottom of the leaf.
e. The stomata are less likely to get rained on if they are on the bottom of the leaf.

2. Most photosynthesis takes place in the:

a. Spongy mesophyll
b. Guard cells
c. Upper epidermis
d. Lower epidermis
e. Palisade mesophyll

3. The leaf is the main site of which processes in the plant?

a. Gas exchange and light capture
b. Light capture and sugar storage
c. Sugar storage and nutrient uptake
d. Nutrient and water uptake
e. Water uptake and gas exchange

4. Which pigment masks the presence of other pigments in the leaf at the same time?

a. Carotenoids
b. Anthocyanins
c. Chlorophyll
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

5. Leaves are sometimes modified for other purposes. Which is not an example of a modified leaf?

a. Pea plant tendrils
b. Cactus spines
c. Onion layers
d. Water storage in succulents
e. None of the above

Plant Reproduction Questions

1. A seed is the fertilized version of which plant part?

a. The endosperm
b. A carpel
c. A stigma
d. A style
e. An ovule

2. Gymnosperm reproduction is different from fern reproduction in all of the following ways except:

a. Reduced gametophytes
b. Two kinds of spores
c. Ovules
d. Pollen
e. Pollinators

3. Which led to the world domination of angiosperms?

a. Fruit protects seeds and gives them a better chance of surviving to germinate.
b. Fruit is eaten by animals and seeds are dispersed to other places.
c. Flowers attract pollinators, which allows the plant to make less pollen and also insures the arrival of pollen to another flower of the same species.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.

4. Double fertilization occurs in:

a. Bryophytes
b. Ferns
c. Gymnosperms
d. Angiosperms
e. All plants

5. Which plants need water for fertilization?

a. Bryophytes
b. Ferns
c. Gymnosperms
d. Angiosperms
e. Both bryophytes and ferns.

Germination and Development Questions

1. How does a eudicot shoot push up through the soil from the seed?

a. Using the epicotyl as a battering ram
b. Using the hypocotyl as a battering ram
c. Using the coleoptile as a tunnel to the soil surface
d. By turning on its ABC genes
e. By growing adventitious roots

2. How does a monocot shoot push up through the soil from a seed?

a. Using the epicotyl as a battering ram
b. Using the hypocotyl as a battering ram
c. Using the coleoptile as a tunnel to the soil surface
d. By turning on its ABC genes
e. By growing adventitious roots

3. Which genes in the ABC model are responsible for petals?

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. A and B
e. B and C

4. Which happens first in seed germination?

a. The seed takes in water
b. The endosperm breaks down
c. The radicle emerges
d. The cotyledons absorb nutrients
e. The hypocotyl emerges.

5. When a plant changes from a juvenile to an adult,

a. It can register to vote.
b. New leaves look different.
c. The shoot apical meristem no longer produces new growth.
d. The plant shifts from primary to secondary growth.
e. It stops flowering.

Photoperiodism Questions

1. Which is important to plant flowering?

a. Uninterrupted dark period
b. Uninterrupted light period
c. Brief flashes of light during the night
d. Short days
e. Long days

2. The exposure of a plant to prolonged cold temperatures to induce flowering is called_______?

a. Photoperiodism
b. Vernalization
c. Radicalization
d. Pollination
e. Germination

3. Where is light perceived by the plant?

a. The roots
b. The stem
c. The leaf
d. The flower
e. The petiole

4. Which of the following is a type of plant?

a. Short-day plant
b. Long-day plant
c. Day-neutral plant
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

5. If a plant is a short-day plant, what is critical for it to flower?

a. A short period of sunlight
b. A long period of sunlight
c. A short period of darkness
d. A long period of darkness
e. Any period of daylight and darkness will allow it flower

Plant Hormones Questions

1. Which plant hormone inhibits seed germination?

a. Auxins
b. Cytokinins
c. Gibberellins
d. Abscisic acid
e. Ethylene

2. Which is not involved in fruit development or ripening?

a. Auxins
b. Cytokinins
c. Gibberellins
d. Ethylene
e. All are involved in fruit development or ripening.

3. Charles and Francis Darwin’s experiments led to the discovery of which plant hormone?

a. Auxins
b. Cytokinins
c. Gibberellins
d. Absicic acid
e. Ethylene

4. Working with auxins, cytokinins cause which plant part to form?

a. Leaves
b. Roots
c. Stems
d. Shoots
e. Shoot and roots

5. Which hormone causes stomata to close?

a. Auxins
b. Cytokinins
c. Gibberellins
d. Abscisic acid
e. Ethylene

Alternation of Generations Answers

1c, 2e,3a, 4c Two gametes, a sperm and an egg, are needed to make a new plant., 5d bryophytes and ferns are seedless plants; gymnosperms make "naked seeds"; angiosperms protect their seeds with fruits.

Primary and Secondary Growth Answers

1a Both of these are lateral meristems, which contribute to width. Apical meristems are responsible for primary growth, which adds to length., 2d The primary phloem gets sloughed off over time, so it is not present in older trees, 3b, 4a Primary growth originates at the apical meristems and secondary growth originates at the vascular and cork cambiums , 5e Though some plants, such as orchids and ivies, may have photosynthetic roots, the vast majority of plants do not. Roots are most important for a-d

Plant Tissues Answers

1a, 2e, 3b(sclerids and fibers are types of sclerenchyma cells; sieve elements make up the phloem , 4c parenchyma cells can divide rapidly, so they come to the rescue when new cells are needed to fix a gaping hole , 5e Sieve cells rely on companion cells to keep them alive, since the sieve cell devotes its insides to transporting sugars

Transportaion in the Plant Answers

1e The apoplast is the pathway through the cell walls; the symplast travels through the cell membrane using holes called plasmodesmata.. , 2b guard cells surround each stoma and control opening and closing by changing their turgor pressure , 4d evaporation pulls water out of the plant’s surfaces; just to be difficult, we call this transpiration , 5c Active transport in the form of H+/ATP pumps is used during phloem loading.

Leaf Structure Answers

1b, 2e Photosynthesis does also occur in the spongy mesophyll and guard cells, but most of it takes place in the palisade mesophyll., 3a Sugars are made in the leaf, not usually stored there; water and nutrient uptake happen in the roots, 4c Chlorophyll makes leaves green, but when leaves senesce, they no longer make chlorophyll, allowing the carotenoids and anthocynanins to become visible and turning the leaves yellow and red., 5e That’s right; all of these are examples of modified leaves.

Plant Reproduction Answers

1e ovules are found inside the carpel, 2e neither gymnosperms nor ferns have pollinators; gymnosperms are wind-pollinated, and ferns don’t have pollen at all, just naked gametes, 3d Fruits and flowers aid in dispersal of plant seeds and successful pollination, which over time allowed angiosperms to spread all over the world , 4d Double fertilization is another thing angiosperms do differently. It results in an embryo and an endosperm; the endosperm nourishes the growing embryo , 5e Both of these plants have sperm that need water to swim to the eggs

Germination and Development Answers

1b, 2c, 3d A alone makes sepals, and C alone makes carpels. B and C together make stamens., 4a Before a plant germinates, it wants to make sure there will be enough water in its new home; the water the seed drinks up cues the rest of germination , 5b Adult leaves look different than juvenile leaves; the plant continues growing, both length-wise and width-wise.

Photoperiodism Answers

1a (Some plants need long periods of darkness and others need short dark periods, but amount of daylight actually isn’t what the plant cares about., 2b By subjecting themselves to months of cold temperatures, plants have a better likelihood of flowering in the spring, when pollinators are active, rather than the middle of winter , 3c The leaf is the only part of the plant that needs to be exposed to light for the plant to sense the photoperiod., 4d, 5d Uninterrupted darkness is important for flowering; interrupting the daylight with a period of darkness does not affect flowering.

Plant Hormones Answers

1d, 2b Auxins work with gibberellins in fruit development; ethylene ripens fruits , 3a Francis Went built on the Darwins’ experiment and figured out that auxin was a mobile chemical., 4e Cytokinins are involved in both shoot and root formation, but the ratio of cytokinins to auxins determines whether shoots or roots develop., 5d Abscisic acid is important in dealing with water stress because it can cause stomata to close.
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