# Probability and Statistics

### Topics

## Introduction to :

The probability of an event is written as a fraction:

This probability tells us how likely an event is to happen.

**Odds** are another way of conveying the same information, or another way of saying how likely an event is to happen. Instead of comparing the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes, we compare the number of favorable and unfavorable outcomes. An **unfavorable** outcome is any outcome not in the event we're looking at. Try to keep this straight from an unflavorable outcome, which is one that is bland and tasteless.

The odds **in favor of** an event are

The odds **against** an event are

### Sample Problem

What are the odds in favor of rolling a 4 with a fair die?

There is 1 favorable outcome (rolling a 4) and there are 5 unfavorable outcomes (rolling anything else). The odds in favor of rolling 4 are 1:5.

Not that we want you to encourage you to gamble, but we wouldn't lay even money on that proposition if we were you.

Since an event must either happen or not happen, if we add up the number of favorable and unfavorable outcomes, we get the total number of outcomes. Therefore, we can go from odds to probability, or from probability to odds. If we'll be doing both, it only makes sense to purchase a round-trip ticket ahead of time.

### Sample Problem

If an event has probability , the number of favorable outcomes is 3 and the number of total outcomes is 4. There's only 1 outcome left to be unfavorable. The odds in favor of the event are 3:1, and the odds against the event are 1:3. Oh, and by the way, there is no such thing as luck. Your odds of losing a coin flip are not higher than someone else's because the world hates you. Sorry to disappoint.

### Sample Problems

If the odds in favor of an event are 1:2, there is 1 favorable outcome and 2 unfavorable outcomes, meaning there are 3 total outcomes, so the probability of the event is

.

If the odds against an event are 4:5 there are 5 favorable outcomes and 4 unfavorable outcomes, for a total of 9 possible outcomes. The probability of the event is

.

#### Exercise 1

What are the odds in favor of each event?

Getting at least one tail after flipping 2 fair coins.

#### Exercise 2

What are the odds in favor of each event?

Picking a face card (J, Q, K) at random from a deck of cards (no jokers).

#### Exercise 3

What are the odds in favor of each event?

Rolling a number greater than 3 on a fair die.

#### Exercise 4

What are the odds against each event?

Picking a king at random from a deck of cards (no jokers).

#### Exercise 5

What are the odds against each event?

Flipping heads with a fair coin.

#### Exercise 6

What are the odds against each event?

Rolling 1 or 2 on a fair dice.

#### Exercise 7

Find the odds in favor of an event whose probability is .

#### Exercise 8

Find the odds in favor of an event whose probability is .

#### Exercise 9

Find the odds in favor of an event whose probability is .

#### Exercise 10

Find the odds in favor of an event whose probability is .

#### Exercise 11

Find the odds in favor of an event whose probability is .

#### Exercise 12

Find the odds in favor of an event whose probability is .

#### Exercise 13

Find the probability of an event if the odds in its favor are 5:6.

#### Exercise 14

Find the probability of an event if the odds in its favor are 6:2.

#### Exercise 15

Find the probability of an event if the odds in its favor are 11:45.

#### Exercise 16

Find the probability of an event if the odds in its favor are 2:3.

#### Exercise 17

Find the probability of an event if the odds in its favor are 49:12.

#### Exercise 18

Find the probability of an event if the odds in its favor are 99:1.