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Roots of Common Terms in Prokaryotes

(L - Latin, G - Greek)

Bacillus

bacillus = small rod or staff (L)

Bacterium

bacterion = staff (G) (* this is because the first bacteria seen had this shape)

Bactericidal

bacterion = staff (G); cida = slayer (L)

Bacteriophage

bacterion = staff (G); phagos = eating (G)

Bacteriostatic

bacterion = staff (G); stasis = stopping (G)

Chemoautotroph

Chemo = of chemical (L); auto = by oneself (G); trophikos = nourishment (G)

Coccus

kokkos = grain, seed, berry (G)

Commensal

Com = together with (or sharing) (L); mensa = a table (L)

Extremophile

extremus = outermost (L); philos = loving (G)

Flagellum

flagellum = whip (L)

Haploid

haploos = single (G)

Lipopolysaccharide

lipos = fat (G); poly = much (G); saccharum = sugar (L)

Mesophile

meso = middle (G); philos = loving (G)

Miasma

stain, defilement (G)

Organelle

organ = tool, instrument (G); ella = diminutive form (L)

Pathogen

pathos = suffering, disease (G); genes = producer of (G)

Peptidoglycan

peptos = cooked, digested (G); glykys = sweet (G)

Periplasm peri

= going around (G); something molded (G)

Pilus

pilus = hair (L)

Plasmid

plasma = something molded (G)

Spirilla

spira = coil (L)

Spirochete

spira = coil (L); chaite = hair (G)

Spore

spora = seed (G)

Symbiosis symbiosis

= living together, companionship (G)

Vector

vector = carrier, bearer (L)

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