Quadratic Formula and Functions
How Many Roots?
When you solve for the roots of a quadratic equation, there are several possible outcomes.
- You can have two real number solutions. If you set x equal to either solution, the result with be zero both times.
- There can be just one real number solution.
- The equation can have two complex number solutions. There are no real number solutions.
There is a way to find out how many solutions there are before you even start using the formula. b2 – 4ac, called the discriminant, is the keystone species of our little quadratic ecosystem. Without it, the whole thing falls apart.
- If b2 – 4ac is positive, then there are two real number solutions.
- If b2 – 4ac = 0, then there is only one real number solution.
- If b2 – 4ac is negative, then there are two complex number solutions.
This all comes directly from the quadratic formula. If the discriminant is positive, then you have , which leads to two real number answers. If it is negative, you have , which gives two complex results. And if b2 – 4ac is 0, then you have , so you have only one solution.
How many roots does x2 – 3 = 0 have?
To use the discriminant, we first note that a = 1, b = 0, and c = -3.
b2 – 4ac = (0)2 – 4(1)(-3) = 12
So we have two real roots. Hah! Too easy.
Okay, How About This?
How many roots does 2x2 + 8x + 8 = 0 have?
Hey now, stop it with that lip, Subheading. Why not just say "Sample Problem" like you usually do? Anyway, the discriminant for this equation is
b2 – 4ac = (8)2 – 4(2)(8) = 64 – 64 = 0
That means we have one real number root for this equation.
How Do You Like This One, Then?
How many roots does 0.7731x2 – 2.3812x + 4.1111 = 0 have?
Now that's just being mean—but we can still do it. Just let us find our calculator real quick.
b2 – 4ac = (-2.3812)2 – 4(0.7731)(4.1111) = 5.6701 – 12.7132 = -7.0431
There are two complex roots for this equation. Also, the calculator was in the Shmoop massage room, next to a pile of Algebra textbooks. In case you were wondering.
What Was It Doing There?
We may have been multitasking at the time. We're pretty busy, you know.