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William Shakespeare, Macbeth: The Lieutenant jokingly refers to Buddy as "Macduff" ("Roof Beam" 2.152); the line "somebody around here hath murdered sleep" is an allusion to a line in Macbeth ("Seymour" 3.5)
William Shakespeare, The Tempest: Buddy refers to the character Prospero ("Seymour" 1.1)
William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar: Salinger's line "I haven't come to bury but to exhume, and most likely, to praise" ("Seymour" 1.5) is an allusion to the line in Julius Caesar, "I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him."
William Shakespeare, Hamlet: Buddy reference the character Fortinbras ("Seymour" 9.6)
R.H. Blyth ("Roof Beam" 4.3)
Saigyō Hōshi ("Roof Beam" 4.4)
Franz Kafka (epigraph to "Seymour," 2.1.2, 2.1.11, 2.1.14)
Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer: Buddy tries to trick the young man into doing his yard work the same way Tom tricks a friend into white-washing the fence for him in this Twain novel. Buddy explicitly references Twain's character here. ("Seymour" 1.16)