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The Return of the Native
by Thomas Hardy
Analysis: Allusions When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.
References to Literature, Art, and Music "Divine Florentine" a.k.a. Dante Alighieri (1.3.6) Albrecht Drürer (German painter) (1.3.9) " Queen Eleanor's Confession" (English ballad) (1.3.11-12, 1.3.112) "Lydia," folk tune of Psalm 133 (1.5.87) Cimmerians, from Homer's Odyssey (1.6.3) Sappho, Greek poet (1.6.11) "War March of the Priests" the finale of Felix Mendelssohn's cantata "Athalie" (1.7.6) Lotus eaters, from Homer's Odyssey (1.7.6) Alcinous, king of the Phaecians in Homer's Odyssey (1.7.11) "a populous solitude," reference to Lord Byron's (1.7.12) Childe Harold's Pilgrimage Scylla, monster that guarded a passage in the Odyssey (1.8.6) Charybdis, dangerous whirlpool in the Odyssey (1.8.6) Mephistopheles, the devil that Faust made a bargain with (1.9.1) James Thompson's " The Castle of Indolence," 1748 (2.1.29) Scheherazade, from (2.3.17) The Arabian Nights , play put on by the Egdon mummers (2.4.11) Saint George Perugino, teacher of artist Raphael (2.4.39) Rembrandt, Dutch artist (2.6.3) Venus appearing before Aeneas in Virgil's (2.6.39) Aeneid Ithuriel, angel in Milton's (2.7.56) Paradise Lost "My Mind to Me a Kingdom Is," line of poem by Sir Edward Dyer (3.1 chapter title) Pheidias, Athenian sculptor (3.1.1) Aeschylus, Greek dramatist (3.1.2) John Gay, dramatist and author (3.1.7) John Keats, Romantic poet (3.1.7) "in striving at high thinking [...]" reference to sonnet by William Wordsworth (3.2.2) Benjamin West, American painter (3.2.6) Samuel Rogers, poet (3.2.6) Thomas Blacklock, blind poet (3.3.111) Anthonius Sallaert, Flemish painter (3.3.112) Danys van Alsloot, Flemish painter (3.3.112) Petrarch, Italian poet famous for his love for Laura (3.4.78) Samuel Johnson, " The History of Raselas" (4.2.55) "birthplace of Shakespeare," Stratford-upon-Avon, England (4.5.17) Aeneas and his father, from Virgil's Aeneid (4.6.33) "Beware the fury of a patient man," line from John Dryden's poem " Absalom and Achitophel" (5.1.63) Oedipus, Greek mythology and Sophocles's play (5.2.118) Oedipus Rex (6.1.30) Jack and the Beanstalk Biblical References Ishmael (1.1.10 and throughout) "Let there be light" ( Genesis 1:3) (1.3.8) "Philistine's greaves of brass," reference to Goliath ( 1 Samuel 17:6) (1.3.32) Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, first four books of the New Testament in the Bible (1.3.41) The Devil's temptation of Christ ( Matthew 4:1-11) (1.3.155) Mount Nebo, where Moses views the promised land before dying ( Deuteronomy 3:27 and 3:49) (1.3.160) Witch of Endor and Samuel ( 1 Samuel 28) (1.6.102) "mentally walked round love," reference to Psalm 48:12 (1.7.15) King Saul, Sisera, Jacob, David (biblical figures) (1.7.17) "mark of Cain," reference to Cain and Abel ( Genesis 4:1-15) (1.9.2) Jared and Mahalaleel (Biblical figures) (2.6.4) Abasuerus the Jew, a.k.a. the Wandering Jew of Christian legend (2.7.11) Zin, desert through which Israelites travelled to the Promised Land ( Numbers 20) (2.7.12) John the Baptist (3.2.3) "as St. Paul says," reference to Romans 8:22 (3.2.18) Pontius Pilate (3.2.23) "measure you were going to mete me [...]" ( Matthew 7:2) (3.5.28) "a time to laugh," reference to Ecclesiastes 3:4 (3.7.5) Ahimaaz, 2 Samuel 18 (4.5.12) Israelites enslaved in Egypt (4.2.54) "old serpent in God's garden," reference to the temptation of Eve in Eden (4.6.47) Judas Iscariot (5.1.27) "Famine and Sword," reference to Jeremiah 14:15-16 (5.2.24) Ascension of Christ (5.2.38) Miraculous Draught of Fishes, Luke 5:1-11 (5.2.38) Last plague of Egypt, Exodus 11:4-12:36 (5.7.17) Gethsemane, garden where Jesus prayed before the crucifixion (5.7.17) Saul, first King of Israel (5.7.20) Lord's Prayer (5.7.34) Lazarus, raised from the dead by Jesus (5.9.55) Job, from the Book of Job (6.3.38) "gladness of his heart," reference to Song of Solomon 3:11 (6.4.64) Sermons on the Mount, reference to Jesus' sermons in Matthew 5-7 (6.4.65) "And the king rose up to meet her [...]" quote from 1 Kings 2:12-20 (6.4.67) Apostle Paul (4.6.27) Historical References The , 1086 census ordered by Doomsday Book William the Conqueror (1.1.9) John Leland (Henry VIII's antiquarian, or historian) (1.1.9) Roman Roads, Via Iceniana, Ikenild Street (1.1.12) The Gunpowder Plot (1.3.7) Amerigo Vespucci (1.4.14) "the year four," reference to war with Napoleon in 1804 (1.3.56) "Fifth-of-Novembers," reference to Guy Fawkes Night (1.3.132) Farinelli, famous Italian castrato singer (1.5.89) Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan, Irish playwright and member of Parliament (1.5.89) "when a woman deliberates," reference to (4.1), a play by Joseph Addison (1.5.122) Cato Julius Caesar (1.6.3 and throughout) Michaelmas, the feast of St. Michael (September 29) (1.6.6) Sarah Kemble Siddons, famous English actress (1.6.11) Belshazzar, last king of Babylon (1.6.21) Albertus Magnus, German natural philosopher (1.6.44) Johann Paul Richter, a.k.a. Jean Paul, German humorist (1.7.8) William the Conqueror, Thomas Wentworth, First Earl of Strafford, Napoleon (1.7.17) Delphi oracles (1.7.22) Heloise, medieval figure (1.7.22) Cleopatra (1.7.22) Sir John Franklin, polar explorer (1.10.3) Frederick the Great of Prussia, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, Napoleon, and Queen Louisa of Prussia (1.10.4) King Candaules's wife in Herodotus's (1.10.41) The Histories "king's head cut off years ago," reference to the beheading of Louis XVI of France (2.1.7) John Kitto, biblical scholar (2.3.5) Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (2.3.17) "Swaflham tinker," reference to old English legend of John Chapman, who dreamt he'd go to London and become rich (2.3.17) Madame Tussaud's, waxwork museum in London (2.4.2) Napoleon (2.6.11 and throughout) Death of Thomas Lyttleton (2.6.38) Lavinia Fenton, actress famous for role of Polly Peachum in John Gay's The Beggar's Open (2.6.51) Elizabeth Farren, actress who played role of Lydia Languish in Richard Sheridan's The Rivals (2.6.51) Baltazar Gracian y Morales, Spanish philosopher (3.1.6) Battle of Waterloo (3.1.6) Robert Clive, governor of British India (3.1.7) Philip of Macedon and his son, Alexander the Great (3.2.4) Lord Frederick North, British prime minister during part of the American Revolution (3.2.6) Plato and Socrates (3.2.23) Nicholas Sanderson, blind mathematician (3.3.111) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, famous philosopher (3.6.65) Pitt Diamond, acquired by Thomas Pitt in India (3.7.26) Sir Thomas Rumbold, governor of Madras, India (3.7.83) Famous duel in 1547 between Gui Chabot and La Chateigneraie (4.4.7) Colonel Charles Lynch (4.4.23) Chateau of Hougomont, HQ of Wellington during the Battle of Waterloo (4.5.17) Mary Stuart, Mary Queen of Scots (4.5.17) Friedrich Hoffman, Richard Meade, and Felice Fontana, nineteenth-century physicians (3.8.03) Sennacherib, king of Assyria (5.7.17) Mythology References Titans (Greek Mythology) (1.1.4) Atlantean ( Atlas) (1.2.39) Maenads, female followers of Dionysus, god of wine (1.3.4) Thor and Woden (Norse gods) (1.3.7) Prometheus (1.3.8) Echo, Greek mythology (2.6.50) Tartarus, worst section of the Greek Underworld Hades (1.4.1) Mount Olympus (1.7.1) "the distaff, the spindle, and the shears," reference to the three Fates in Greek Mythology (1.7.1) Sphinx (1.7.3) Hades, the Greek Underworld (1.7.7 and throughout) Artemis, Athena, Hera (Greek goddesses) (1.7.6) Tantalus, Greek mythology (1.9.14)
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