Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Solids, Liquids, and Gases Terms
Adhesive ForcesThe attractive forces between unlike molecules.
Amorphous SolidsA solid that does not have a repeating, regular three-dimensional arrangement of particles.
AqueousA substance dissolved in water.
Avogadro's LawEqual volumes of an ideal gas contain equal numbers of molecules if both volumes are at the same temperature and pressure.
Boiling Point (or Vaporization)The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
Boiling Point ElevationThe boiling point of a solution is higher than the boiling point of the pure solvent (colligative property).
Boyle's LawThe pressure of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to its volume if the temperature and amount of gas is held constant.
Capillary ActionThe movement of a liquid along the surface of a solid caused by the attraction of molecules of the liquid to the molecules of the solid.
Charles' LawThe volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature if pressure and amount of gas remain constant.
Chemical ProcessA method of changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds.
Cohesive ForcesThe intermolecular forces which cause a tendency in liquids to resist separation.
Colligative PropertiesProperties of a solution that depend on the number of solute molecules present but not on the identity of the solute.
Combined Gas LawThe gas law that combines Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and Gay-Lussac's Law.
CompoundCombinations of two or more elements.
CompressibilityA measure of the volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure.
CondensationThe conversion of a gas into a liquid.
Condensed PhaseEither the solid or liquid phase of a substance.
Covalent BondA very strong attraction between two or more atoms that are sharing their electrons.
Covalent CrystalA crystal in which the structure is maintained by covalent bonds.
Crystal LatticeA three-dimensional array of points that embodies the pattern of repetition in a crystalline solid.
Crystalline SolidA solid that possesses long-range order at the atomic or molecular level in its structure.
Dalton's Law Of Partial PressuresThe total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressure of the individual gases.
DensityMass of a substance per unit volume.
DepositionThe transition from a gas to a solid.
DissociationWhen ionic substances dissolve their ions while surrounded by solvent molecules and separated from each other.
EffusionGas molecules in a container escape from tiny pinholes into a vacuum with the same average velocity they have inside the container.
Electrostatic ForceA phenomenon resulting from slow-moving electrical charges.
ElementA pure substance that cannot be decomposed.
EvaporationVaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.
FiltrationThe act of passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove solid particles.
FluidSubstances (gases and liquids) that flow freely.
FreezingThe conversion of a liquid into a gas.
Freezing PointThe temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the vapor pressure of the corresponding solid.
Freezing Point DepressionThe freezing point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent (colligative property).
GasMatter in a form that has low density, is easily compressible, expands spontaneously when placed in a larger container, and has particles that are far apart and move freely
Graham's LawThe rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.
HeatA means by which energy is transferred from a hot body to a colder body when the two are placed in thermal contact with one another.
HeterogeneousA sample of matter consisting of more than one phase.
HomogeneousA sample of matter consisting of a single phase,
Hydrogen BondStrong dipole-dipole forces between molecules X-H … Y, where X and Y are small electronegative atoms and H denotes the hydrogen bond.
Hydrostatic PressureThe pressure exerted by a liquid when it is at rest.
Ideal GasA gas whose pressure P, volume V, and temperature T are related by PV = nRT, where n is the number of moles of gas and R is the ideal gas law constant.
Ideal Gas LawThe product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the temperature.
Intermolecular ForceAn attraction or repulsion between molecules.
Ionic CrystalA crystal held together by Coulomb attractions.
Kinetic EnergyThe energy an object possesses as a result of its motion.
Kinetic Molecular TheoryA collection of postulates that describe the behavior of molecules in a gas.
LiquidA state of matter that has a high density, low compressibility, takes the shape of their container, and possesses particles that are close together but are still able to flow.
MassThe quantity of matter in a body.
MatterAnything that has mass and volume.
MeltingThe process of a solid becoming a liquid.
Melting PointThe temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium.
Metallic CrystalA crystal in which the atoms are linked by electrons shared in delocalized valence orbitals.
MixtureA sample of matter composed of two or more substances each of which retains its own identity and properties.
MolalityConcentration of a solution measured as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
MolarityConcentration measured as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Mole FractionConcentration of a substance in a mixture measured as moles of the substance per mole of mixture.
Molecular CrystalA crystal in which groups of strongly linked atoms or molecules are held in position by weak intermolecular interactions.
Osmotic PressureThe pressure that develops in a solution separated from a solvent by a membrane permeable only to the solvent.
Partial PressureThe independent pressure exerted by different gases in a mixture.
ParticleThe building block of matter usually in the form of atoms, molecules, or ions.
PhaseA sample of matter that is uniform throughout both in its chemical composition and in its physical state.
Phase DiagramA map that shows which phases of a substance are most stable for a given set of pressure and volume conditions.
Physical ChangeA change which does not transform one substance into another.
PressureForce per unit area.
Raoult's LawApplies to a gas-liquid mixture when a gas is highly soluble in a liquid and relates the mole fractions of the species in the liquid and gas phases.
Saturated SolutionA solution in equilibrium with a solid state.
SolidA dense rigid state of matter with a definite volume and shape whose particles are packed close together.
SolubilityThe solubility of a substance is its concentration in a saturated solution.
SolubleCapable of being dissolved in a solvent.
SoluteA substance dissolved in a solvent to make a solution.
SolutionA sample of matter consisting of more than one pure substance with properties that do not vary within the sample.
SolventThe medium of a solution.
Standard PressureStandard pressure has a pressure of 1 atmosphere (atm).
Standard TemperatureStandard temperature is a temperature of 0ºC.
Standard Temperature And Pressure (STP)Conditions in which pressure is 1 atm and temperature is 0ºC
SublimationThe process of a solid becoming a gas.
SubstanceA sample of matter that has the same chemical composition and physical properties.
Surface TensionThe force per unit length used to overcome the microscopic forces between molecules at the liquid-air interface.
SuspensionA heterogeneous mixture in which solute particles settle out of a solvent after some time has passed.
TemperatureA property associated with the hotness or coldness of an object.
Triple PointThe state at which all three phases coexist in equilibrium.
Unit CellThe simplest arrangement of atoms or molecules that regularly repeat in a crystal structure.
Universal Gas ConstantThe constant in the Ideal Gas Law, equal to 8.3145 J mol-1 K-1 or 0.082058 L atm mol-1 K-1.
Van Der Waals ForceA force acting between non-bonded atoms or molecules.
Vapor PressureThe pressure of the vapor coexisting with a confined liquid or solid at any specified temperature.
Vaporization (or Boiling Point)The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
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