Die Heuning Pot Literature Guide
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Matter

1. A glass of pure water is classified as:

a) a heterogeneous solution
b) a homogeneous solution
c) an element
d) a compound
e) an ionic solution

2. Mixtures are divided into two classes. What are they?

a) Compounds and elements
b) Ionic and covalent
c) Heterogeneous and homogeneous
d) Solution and suspension
e) Colloid and solution

3. Another name for a homogeneous mixture is:

a) a solution
b) a suspension
c) a substance
d) a compound
e) a colloid

4. _____ is not a homogeneous mixture

a) Steel
b) Ice water
c) Vinegar
d) Tap water
e) Salt water

5. An example of an element is:

a) Earth
b) Water
c) Salt
d) Carbon
e) Sugar

Phases

1. Another word for vaporization is ______?

a) melting
b) condensation
c) boiling
d) deposition
e) sublimation

2. Which state of matter has the most kinetic energy?

a) Solids
b) Liquids
c) Gases
d) Solutions
e) Suspensions

3. Which state of matter has the strongest intermolecular forces?

b) Solids
c) Liquids
d) Gases
e) Plasmas
d) Solutions

4. To go from one phase to another a _______ change must occur?

a) chemical
b) physical
c) nuclear
d) interparticular
e) fast

5.The conversion of a gas into a solid is called _______?

a) solidification
b) sublimation
c) deposition
d) ionization
e) boiling

Solids

1. Solids are classified into two categories called ______.

a) ionic and covalent
b) metallic and non-metallic
c) molecular and crystalline
d) amorphous and crystalline
e) metallic and crystalline

2. The most basic repeating unit of a crystal is the _______.

a) lattice point
b) unit cell
c) lattice cell
d) atomic point
e) center of the crystal

3. Diamonds and graphite are two examples of ________ crystals.

a) covalent
b) ionic
c) metallic
d) molecular
e) amorphous

4. The particles in an ionic crystal are held together by ______ forces.

a) covalent
b) cohesive
c) adhesive
d) electrostatic
e) magnetic

5. The condensed phases of matter are _________.

a) gases and plasmas
b) solids and gases
c) liquids and gases
d) solids and liquids
e) crystals and gases

Liquids

1. _________ are attractive IMFs that cause molecules in liquids to stick together.

a) Van der Waals forces
b) Electrostatic
c) Adhesive forces
d) Cohesive forces
e) Ionic bonds

2. Factors that affect a liquid's viscosity are ____________.

a) temperature
b) molecular shape
c) IMFs
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

3. ________ is a fluid's resistance to flow.

a) Osmotic pressure
b) Viscosity
c) Capillary action
d) Surface tension
e) Capillary tension

4. Droplets of water form spheres in order to ______ .

a) overcome osmotic pressure
b) reduce the surface area
c) decrease intermolecular forces
d) overcome gravity
e) roll easier

5. When a liquid rises up a narrow tube the adhesive forces are ______ then the cohesive forces.

a) stronger
b) weaker
c) equal to
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

Gases

1. Ten degrees Celsius is equal to ______ K.

a) 263.15
b) 273.15
c) 283.15
d) 293.15
e) none of the above

2. Standard Temperature and Pressure is equal to ___________.

a) 0 K and 1 atm
b) 0ºC and 1 atm
c) 273ºC and 1 bar
d) 0 K and 1 bar
e) None of the above

3. Gases have a ______ shape and a ________ volume.

a) fixed, fixed
b) fixed, flexible
c) flexible, flexible
d) flexible, fixed
e) none of the above

4. Which of the following characteristics does not describe an Ideal Gas?

a) Contains tiny, discrete particles that have mass but virtually no volume
b) Only attractive forces exist between the particles
c) When the particles collide, energy is conserved
d) No energy is lost when a particle collides with the container
e) None of the above

5. One atm is equal to ______ mm Hg.

a) 1
b) 45
c) 100
d) 760
e) None of the above

Gas Laws

1. In an Ideal Gas, pressure and volume are ______ related.

a) inversely
b) directly
c) not
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

2. In an Ideal Gas, volume and temperature are _______ related.

a) inversely
b) directly
c) not
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

3. Two containers of the Ideal Gases A and B2 have the same volume and the same pressure. Which sample of gas has the greater number of moles of the gas?

a) A
b) B2
c) They are equal
d) Cannot be determined
e) C

4. Which of the following gases effuses at the highest rate?

a) N2
b) O2c) F2d) Ne
e) CO

5. True or False: If you have a mixture of gases in a container the ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬______ pressure is the sum of the pressures exerted by each of the gases in the mixture.

a) total
b) partial
c) Dalton
d) absolute
e) atmospheric

Solutions

1. For a given concentration, the ratio of the solute to solvent in a solution is ________.

a) variable
b) fixed
c) always 1:1
d) none of the above
e) cannot be determined from information given

2. Solutions are _______ in the liquid phase.

a) always
b) sometimes
c) never
d) none of the above
e) the best

3. What is the name of the major component of a solution?

a) Electrolyte
b) Solvent
c) Solute
d) Complex
e) Colloid

4. What are the units of molality?

a) moles / L
b) moles / L / K
c) moles / kg
d) kg / L
e) percent

5. What are the units of mole fraction?

a) no units
b) moles / L
c) moles / kg
d) percent
e) kg / L

Colligative Properties

1. Which of the following is NOT a colligative property of a solution?

a) The osmotic pressure
b) The freezing point
c) The boiling point
d) The molarity
e) None of the above

2. Which colligative property predicts the boiling point elevation phenomenon?

a) Osmotic pressure
b) Freezing point depression
c) Viscosity elevation
d) Vapor pressure lowering
e) None of the above

3. Which of the following statements is false?

a) Ionic solutes dissociate in solution altering colligative properties of the solution
b) The vapor pressure of a solvent above a solution is less than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent
c) The freezing point is lowered on addition of a solute to a solvent
d) The vapor pressure of a solvent increase as its mole fraction increases
e) None of the above

4. When NaCl is dissolved in water, which of the following increases in value?

a) Boiling point and freezing point
b) Freezing point
c) Boiling point
d) Vapor pressure and boiling point
e) Vapor pressure and freezing point

5. What happens to the osmotic pressure of a solution when a different solute is added?

a) Decreases
b) Decreases then increases
c) Increases
d) All of the above
e) None of the above

Phase Changes

1. Evaporation ________occur in a closed container.

a) can
b) can never
c) can only
d) must
e) none of the above

2. The physical change of state known as freezing involves which transformation?

a) Solid to liquid
b) Liquid to gas
c) Gas to solid
d) Gas to liquid
e) Liquid to solid

3. A phase diagram shows the relationship between:

a) Pressure, volume, and the three phases of matter
b) Temperature, pressure, and the three phases of matter
c) Temperature, volume, and the three phases of matter
d) Vapor pressure and atmospheric pressure
e) Vapor pressure, volume, and the three phases of matter

4. On a phase diagram, the temperature and pressure at which the phase boundary between the liquid and gas phases no longer exists is called the:

a) Critical point
b) Boiling point
c) Triple point
d) Phase extinction
e) Sublimation point

5. At a temperature above the critical temperature, it is impossible to

a) apply enough pressure to freeze a liquid
b) measure the temperature of a substance
c) apply enough pressure to condense a gas to a liquid
d) apply enough pressure to freeze a liquid
e) none of the above

Answers

Matter

1. A glass of pure water is classified as:

d) a compound

Pure water is a collection of solely H2O molecules therefore pure water is classified as a compound. Tap water or salt water are H2O molecules and other dissolved ions so these types of water would be considered homogeneous solutions.

2. Mixtures are divided into two classes. What are they?

c) Heterogeneous and homogeneous

A mixture is what we get when you combine two substances in such a way that no chemical reaction occurs between the components and we can separate them again. The two types of mixtures are heterogeneous and homogeneous.

3. Another name for a homogeneous mixture is:

a) a solution

A solution by definition is single-phase liquid mixture of two more components, which can also be called a homogeneous mixture.

4. _____ is not a homogeneous mixture

b) Ice water

A homogeneous mixture is a sample of matter consisting of a single phase. All of the above examples are homogeneous except ice water, which is a heterogeneous mixture because it has both a solid and liquid phase present.

5. An example of an element is:

d) Carbon

An element is a pure substance that cannot be decomposed. Carbon is one of the 117 elements found on the periodic table.

Phases

1. Another word for vaporization is ______?

c) boiling

Vaporization is the conversion of a liquid into a gas. This is also called boiling.

2. Which state of matter has the most kinetic energy?

c) Gases

The particles in the gas phase are in constant random motion and have high energy.

3. Which state of matter has the strongest intermolecular forces?

b) Solids
The particles in a solid are essential stuck in place because the intermolecular forces are so strong.

4. To go from one phase to another a _______ change must occur?

b) physical

When a phase change occurs the chemical identity of the sample remains the same. The only change that occurs is an increase or decrease in energy that results from a physical change.

5.The conversion of a gas into a solid is called _______?

c) deposition

By definition deposition is the transition from a gas to a solid.

Solids

1. Solids are classified into two categories called ______.

d) amorphous and crystalline

Solids can be crystalline or amorphous. A crystalline solid is one in which the atoms, ions, or molecules lie in an ordered arrangement. An amorphous solid is one in which the atoms, ions, or molecules lie in a random arrangement.

2. The most basic repeating unit of a crystal is the _______.

b) unit cell

The smallest building block of a crystal is the unit cell. Repeating units of the unit cell are called a crystal lattice.

3. Diamonds and graphite are two examples of ________ crystals.

a) covalent

Diamonds and graphite are two forms of elemental carbon. The carbon atoms are connected in different patterns through covalent bonds, therefore they are two examples of covalent crystals.

4. The particles in an ionic crystal are held together by ______ forces.

d) electrostatic

Ionic crystals are made up of a repeating pattern of ions. These ions have positive and negative charges that attract each other and act as glue to hold the crystal together. That glue is called electrostatic forces.

5. The condensed phases of matter are _________.

d) solids and liquids

Condensed states of matter are solids and liquids. These are states in which the particles are fairly close together.

Liquids

1. _________ are attractive IMFs that cause molecules in liquids to stick together.

d) Cohesive forces

Cohesive forces are the forces of attraction between molecules of the same type. These forces are strongest in solids, followed by liquids, and weak in gases. This is why liquids stick together but gases freely expand.

2. Factors that affect a liquid's viscosity are ____________.

d) all of the above

Viscosity describes a fluid's resistance to flow. The viscosity of a liquid is affected by temperature, molecular shape, intermolecular forces, and the identity of the liquid itself.

3. ________ is a fluid's resistance to flow.

b) Viscosity

By definition, viscosity describes a fluid's resistance to flow. The higher the viscosity the thicker a liquid or stickier a liquid is.

4. Droplets of water form spheres in order to ______ .

b) reduce the surface area

The lowest energy state for a drop of water occurs when the maximum number of water molecules are surrounded on all sides by other water molecules. This occurs when the surface area is at a minimum. A sphere has the smallest ratio of surface area to volume ratio.

5. When a liquid rises up a narrow tube the adhesive forces are ______ then the cohesive forces.

a) stronger

Capillary action occurs because water is sticky, thanks to the forces of cohesion and adhesion. Capillary action occurs when the adhesion to the walls is stronger than the cohesive forces between the liquid molecules.

Gases

1. Ten degrees Celsius is equal to ______ K.

c) 283.15

Kelvin = Celsius + 273.15

2. Standard Temperature and Pressure is equal to ___________.

b) 0ºC and 1 atm

Standard Temperature and Pressure is equal to 0 oC and 1 atm always.

3. Gases have a ______ shape and a ________ volume.

c) flexible, flexible

Gases have a flexible shape and a flexible volume.
Liquids have a flexible shape and a fixed volume.
Solids have a fixed shape and a fixed volume.

4. Which of the following characteristics does not describe an Ideal Gas?

b) Only attractive forces exist between the particles

In the Ideal Gas model particles are treated as if there are no attractive or repulsive forces that exist between them. This highly simplifies equations and theories.

5. One atm is equal to ______ mm Hg.

d) 760

One atmosphere is equal to 760 mm Hg. These are just two possible units of pressure.

Gas Laws

1. In an Ideal Gas, pressure and volume are ______ related.

a) inversely

According to Boyle's Law, P1V1 = P2V2. As one variable increases, the other variable must decrease.

2. In an Ideal Gas, volume and temperature are _______ related.

b) directly

According to Charles' Law, . As one variable increases, the other variable must also increase.

3. Two containers of the Ideal Gases A and B2 have the same volume and the same pressure. Which sample of gas has the greater number of moles of the gas?

c) They are equal

Avogadro's Law states that equal volumes of an ideal gas contain equal numbers of molecules if both volumes are at the same temperature and pressure.

4. Which of the following gases effuses at the highest rate?

d) Ne

The rate of effusion is indirectly proportional to the molar mass, so the lower the molar mass the higher the rate of effusion. Ne (Neon) has the lowest molar mass therefore it will diffuse with the highest rate.

5. True or False: If you have a mixture of gases in a container the ______ pressure is the sum of the pressures exerted by each of the gases in the mixture.

a) total

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressure of the individual gases

Solutions

1. For a given concentration, the ratio of the solute to solvent in a solution is ________.

b) fixed

Concentration is the measure of the amount of a solute in a solution. If the amount of solute is changed so does the concentration. Therefore for a given concentration the ratio of the solute to solvent in a solution is fixed.

2. Solutions are _______ in the liquid phase.

b) sometimes

A solution is a type of homogeneous mixture in which the particles of one or more substances (the solute) are distributed uniformly throughout another substance (the solvent). We are most familiar with solutions in the liquid phase, but solutions can also be in the solid phase such as alloys or plastics.

3. What is the name of the major component of a solution?

b) Solvent

Solutions are composed of two or more components. The component in the largest amount is called the solvent, while the component in the smaller amount is called the solute.

4. What are the units of molality?

c) moles / kg

The molality of a solution is the amount of a substance (nsolute) divided by the mass in kg of the solvent (msolvent) therefore the units are moles/kg.

5. What are the units of mole fraction?

a) no units

The mole fraction is a unit of concentration defined to be equal to the number of moles of a solute divided by the total number of moles of a solute, therefore there are no units assigned to the mole fraction.

Colligative Properties

1. Which of the following is NOT a colligative property of a solution?

d) The molarity

Colligative properties are properties of a solution that depend on the number of solute molecules present but not on the identity of the solute. These properties include osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and boiling point elevation.

2. Which colligative property predicts the boiling point elevation phenomenon?

d) Vapor pressure lowering

At the boiling point the vapor pressure is equal to 1 atmosphere (atm). Addition of a solute to a solution decreases the vapor pressure. This means the addition of a solute results in boiling point elevation.

3. Which of the following statements is false?

e) None of the above

All of the sentences are true. Colligative Properties are the properties of a solution that depend on the number of particles in solution. As particles are dissolved in a solution, vapor pressure depression, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure changes can all occur.

4. When NaCl is dissolved in water, which of the following increases in value?

c) Boiling point

At the boiling point the vapor pressure is equal to 1 atmosphere (atm). Addition of a solute to a solution decreases the vapor pressure. Which means the addition of a solute results in boiling point elevation.

5. What happens to the osmotic pressure of a solution when a different solute is added?

c) Increases

Osmotic pressure is the least amount of pressure needed to stop osmosis. As the number of solute particles increases so does the osmotic pressure.

Phase Changes

1. Evaporation ________occur in a closed container.

a) can

Evaporation can occur in both an open and closed container. When liquid evaporates in a closed container, gas molecules collect above the liquid as vapor. Evaporation continues until the rate of evaporation of molecules equals the rate of condensation of molecules.

2. The physical change of state known as freezing involves which transformation?

e) Liquid to solid

Freezing is the process of converting a liquid into a solid.

3. A phase diagram shows the relationship between:

b) Temperature, pressure, and the three phases of matter

A phase diagram is a common way to represent the various phases of a substance and the conditions under which each phase exists. A phase diagram is a plot of pressure versus temperature.

4. On a phase diagram, the temperature and pressure at which the phase boundary between the liquid and gas phases no longer exists is called the:

a) Critical point

The temperature above which a substance will always be a gas regardless of the pressure is the critical point. On a phase diagram there is no longer a line in between the liquid and gas phase.

5. At a temperature above the critical temperature, it is impossible to

c) apply enough pressure to condense a gas to a liquid

Above the critical temperature a substance will always be a gas regardless of the pressure applied.
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