Die Heuning Pot Literature Guide
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Topics in Depth

The Theme of Test Your Knowledge! in Taxonomy

History of Taxonomy

1. Name the two kingdoms that Aristotle created.

2. Who introduced the binomial system of nomenclature?

3. Who suggested that there should be 3 domains at the top of the hierarchy of life?
  
a. Aristotle
b. Carolus Linnaeus
c. R.H. Whittaker
d. Carl Woese

4. List the 6 kingdoms that we use today.

5. Briefly describe how the progression of science (for example, the microscope) led to a progression of taxonomy. Since science is still progressing, do you think there could be more changes in taxonomy in the future?

Systematics

1. How many species of organisms exist today?

a. More than 10,000
b. More than 100,000
c. More than 1,000,000
d. Way more than 1,000,000

2. True or False? The characteristics of an organism that are most important to its survival will tell you the most about its taxonomic classification.

3. Systematists can use which of the following to help them classify an organism?

a. Structure
b. Behavior
c. Body plan
d. All of the above

4. Which of the following is unique to only one type of organism?

a. Its family name
b. Its genus name
c. Its species name
d. Its species identifier

5. True or False? While we don't believe that "you are what you eat," an organism's diet can give scientists a lot of information about what it is.

Creating Phyologenetic Trees

1. Pandas and humans both have opposable thumbs, thumbs that can reach across the palm and touch the finger pads of the other fingers. The most recent common ancestor for pandas and humans did not have opposable thumbs. Therefore, opposable thumbs are a classic example of

a. Convergent evolution
b. A shared derived character
c. Phylogeny
d. A homologous character

2. True or False? Shared derived characters indicated a more distant common ancestor than shared ancestral characters.

3. A node in a phylogenetic tree represents

a. A common ancestor for all of the organisms above the node.
b. The formation of a new species.
c. All of the above

4. Species at the bottom of a phylogenetic tree are

a. Younger than those at the top.
b. Older than those at the top.
c. More primitive than those at the top.
d. Both b and c

5. A phylogeny is

a. A type of classification.
b. An organism's evolutionary history.
c. A painful medical procedure.
d. A type of phylum.

6. Which trait(s) would be most helpful in determining the relatedness of two species?

a. Shared derived characters
b. Shared ancestral characters
c. Homoplastic traits

Developmental Biology

1. A starfish has

For a hint, see this figure:

a. Three germ layers
b. A true coelom
c. Bilateral symmetry
d. All of the above

2. Which developmental adaptation do scientists think arose several times in evolutionary history?

a. Three germ layers
b. Segmentation
c. Lined body cavities
d. Bilateral symmetry

3. Gastrulation forms the

a. Mesoderm
b. Endoderm
c. Ectoderm
d. All of the above

4. The fate of the       is what determines the difference between protostomes and deuterostomes.

a. Blastopore
b. Gut
c. Tissues
d. Coelom

5. We are

a. Acoelomates
b. Pseudocoelomates
c. Coelomates
d. None of the above

Classification

1. Prokaryotes have

a. Organelles
b. A nucleus
c. Two copies of their genes
d. None of the above

2. Eukaryotes are usually

a. Diploid
b. Multicellular
c. Sexual
d. All of the above

3. Chemotrophs would NOT use which of the following as an energy source.

a. Sunlight
b. Hydrogen
c. Sulfur
d. Ammonia

4. True or False? Heterotrophs are also called producers.

5. Which of the following is false? Chemoautotrophs can

a. Make their own carbon compounds
b. Live without sunlight
c. Make energy
d. Use inorganic molecules to make organic molecules

1. True or False? All bacteria cause diseases.

2. Archaea share the following with Eukarya.

a. Two sets of genes
b. Organelles
c. Three RNA polymerases
d. All of the above

3. Although Archaea are usually thought to live in extreme environments, many of them live in

a. Swamps
b. Forests
c. Deserts
d. Plains

4. Archaea share the following with Bacteria:

a. No nucleus
b. Haploid
c. Plasma membrane
d. All of the above

5. Bacteria can be

a. Chemoautotrophs
b. Photoautotrophs
c. Chemoheterotrophs
d. Photoheterotrophs
e. All of the above

1. Scientists think that the first animals evolved from which protists?

a. Amoebas
b. Diatoms
c. Choanoflagellates
d. Euglenoids

2. Fungi are generally

a. Photoautotrophs
b. Chemoautotrophs
c. Photoheterotrophs
d. Chemoheterotrophs

3. Bryophytes are plants that don't have

a. Cascular tissues
b. True roots
c. True leaves
d. Any of the above

4. The cell walls of plants contain

a. Chitin
b. Cellulose
c. Peptidoglycan
d. Glucose

5. The highest level of organization found in animals is

a. Cells
b. Tissues
c. Organs
d. Organ systems

Solutions

History of Taxonomy

1. Name the two kingdoms that Aristotle created.

Plantae and Animalia

2. Who introduced the binomial system of nomenclature?

Carolus Linnaeus

3. Who suggested that there should be 3 domains at the top of the hierarchy of life?

d. Carl Woese

4. List the 6 kingdoms that we use today.

Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

5. Briefly describe how the progression of science (for example, the microscope) led to a progression of taxonomy. Since science is still progressing, do you think there could be more changes in taxonomy in the future?

The more we know about organisms, the more we understand their similarities and differences, which is what we use to categorize them. As our knowledge improves, we make changes to taxa that reflect what we have learned. For example, when the microscope was discovered, three new kingdoms (Archaea, Bacteria, and Protista) had to be added to include the life forms that had never been seen before. Therefore, yes, there will probably be more taxonomic changes in the future.

Systematics

1. How many species of organisms exist today?

d. Way more than 1,000,000

2. True or False? The characteristics of an organism that are most important to its survival will tell you the most about its taxonomic classification.

True

3. Systematists can use which of the following to help them classify an organism?

a. Structure
b. Behavior
c. Body plan
d. All of the above

4. Which of the following is unique to only one type of organism?

c. Its species name

5. True or False? While we don't believe that "you are what you eat," an organism's diet can give scientists a lot of information about what it is.

True

Creating Phyologenetic Trees

1. Pandas and humans both have opposable thumbs, thumbs that can reach across the palm and touch the finger pads of the other fingers. The most recent common ancestor for pandas and humans did not have opposable thumbs. Therefore, opposable thumbs are a classic example of

a. Convergent evolution

2. True or False? Shared derived characters indicated a more distant common ancestor than shared ancestral characters.

False

3. A node in a phylogenetic tree represents

a. A common ancestor for all of the organisms above the node.
b. The formation of a new species.
c. All of the above

4. Species at the bottom of a phylogenetic tree are

b. Older than those at the top.
c. More primitive than those at the top.
d. Both b and c

5. A phylogeny is

b. An organism's evolutionary history.

6. Which trait(s) would be most helpful in determining the relatedness of two species?

a. Shared derived characters

Developmental Biology

1. A starfish has


Hint: See this figure:

a. Three germ layers
b. A true coelom
c. Bilateral symmetry
d. All of the above

2. Which developmental adaptation do scientists think arose several times in evolutionary history?

b. Segmentation

3. Gastrulation forms the

a. Mesoderm
b. Endoderm
c. Ectoderm
d. All of the above

4. The fate of the       is what determines the difference between protostomes and deuterostomes.

a. Blastopore

5. We are

c. Coelomates

Classification

1. Prokaryotes have

a. Organelles
b. A nucleus
c. Two copies of their genes
d. None of the above

2. Eukaryotes are usually

a. Diploid
b. Multicellular
c. Sexual
d. All of the above

3. Chemotrophs would NOT use which of the following as an energy source.

a. Sunlight

4. True or False? Heterotrophs are also called producers.

False

5. Which of the following is false? Chemoautotrophs can

c. Make energy

1. True or False? All bacteria cause diseases.

False

2. Archaea share the following with Eukarya.

c. Three RNA polymerases

3. Although Archaea are usually thought to live in extreme environments, many of them live in

a. Swamps

4. Archaea share the following with Bacteria:

a. No nucleus
b. Haploid
c. Plasma membrane
d. All of the above

5. Bacteria can be

a. Chemoautotrophs
b. Photoautotrophs
c. Chemoheterotrophs
d. Photoheterotrophs
e. All of the above

1. Scientists think that the first animals evolved from which protists?

c. Choanoflagellates

2. Fungi are generally

d. Chemoheterotrophs

3. Bryophytes are plants that don't have

a. Cascular tissues
b. True roots
c. True leaves
d. Any of the above

4. The cell walls of plants contain

b. Cellulose

5. The highest level of organization found in animals is

d. Organ systems

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