Tess of the D'Urbervilles
by Thomas Hardy
Take a story's temperature by studying its tone. Is it hopeful? Cynical? Snarky? Playful?
When the narrator is describing the landscape, he adopts the tone of a passing observer – someone who is interested in what's going on, but not someone who's really invested in any of it. During climactic or very emotional moments, he adopts a more sympathetic tone. For the most part, that sympathy is more of a general sympathy – the kind of pity anyone would feel for someone suffering as Tess does. That universal sympathy makes the reader identify even more with Tess.