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Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf Timeline

How It All Went Down

Jan 25, 1882

Birth of Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Stephen is born. She is the third of four children born to Julia Prinsep Stephen and her husband Leslie. She also has four half-siblings from her parents' previous marriages. Virginia's parents are fixtures on the London literary and intellectual scene and she grows up in a home full of books.

1891

Half-Sister Institutionalized

Leslie Stephen's mentally disabled daughter from his previous marriage, Laura Makepeace Stephen, is sent to live in an institution at the age of 21.

1895

Death of Virginia Woolf's Mother

Virginia Woolf's mother, Julia Prinsep Stephen, dies. The family is plunged into mourning, and Virginia has her first major depressive episode.

1897

Death of Virginia Woolf's Half-Sister

Virginia's half-sister Stella Duckworth, who has been running the Stephen household since the death of their mother in 1895, dies.

1904

Death of Virginia Woolf's Father

Leslie Stephen dies of stomach cancer. The loss of her father prompts a major mental breakdown during which Virginia tries to commit suicide by jumping out of a window. She is briefly institutionalized. Following their father's death, the Stephen children sell their childhood home and buy a house together in the hip Bloomsbury neighborhood of London.

1905

Contributor to Times Literary Supplement

At the age of 23, Virginia begins her professional writing career as a contributor to the Times Literary Supplement. She also takes on several jobs of the sort available to women at the time, such as teaching and reading to elderly ladies.

1906

Death of Virginia Woolf's Brother

The Stephens travel together to Greece. Vanessa and Thoby both become sick with typhoid fever. Vanessa recovers, but Thoby dies at the age of 26. Always close to her siblings, Virginia is heartbroken.

1907

Sister Vanessa Marries Clive Bell

Vanessa Stephen marries the art critic Clive Bell. Virginia and her brother Adrian share a home near the Bells' house.

1910

Bloomsbury Group

The Bloomsbury Group—a circle of writers, artists and intellectuals that eventually includes Virginia Woolf, novelist E.M. Forster, economist John Maynard Keynes and others among its members—begins meeting informally at the Bells' home. Virginia and five other members of the group play a practical joke on the British military in which they pretend to be visiting dignitaries from the British colonies to finagle a tour of the British warship the H.M.S. Dreadnought. The incident is known as the Dreadnought Hoax.

Aug 10, 1912

Marriage to Leonard Woolf

Virginia Stephen marries Leonard Woolf, a Jewish intellectual who had served in the foreign service. The couple enjoy a happy, if unconventional, marriage that lasts until Virginia's death.

Aug 4, 1914

World War I

Great Britain enters World War I. Most members of the Bloomsbury Group are pacifists, and none of the men enlist.

1915

The Voyage Out

Woolf's first novel The Voyage Out is published. She had completed it a year earlier, but publication was delayed by the war and Woolf's lingering depression.

1917

Hogarth Press

The Woolfs purchase a used printing press, establishing the Hogarth Press in the basement of their home. Their basement project allows Virginia to publish her experimental fiction. Hogarth grows into a respected publishing house, putting out works from authors like Katharine Mansfield, T.S. Eliot and Sigmund Freud.

Nov 11, 1918

Armistice Day

World War I ends.

1919

Monk's House

Virginia and Leonard Woolf purchase Monk's House, an eighteenth-century cottage located in the countryside village of Rodmell in England. They will maintain the house until Leonard's death in 1969. Also in 1919, Virginia publishes the novel Night and Day.

1922

Affair with Vita Sackville-West

Virginia Woolf publishes Jacob's Room, a novel based on her brother Thoby's death. In this same year she meets Vita Sackville-West, a married writer. The two women begin a love affair—with Leonard Woolf's knowledge and permission—that lasts through the 1920s. After their romantic relationship ends, they remain close friends until Woolf's death.

1924

Move to Bloomsbury

The Woolfs move to Bloomsbury, the bohemian neighborhood of London. The Bloomsbury Group continues to meet informally.

1925

Mrs. Dalloway

Virginia Woolf publishes Mrs. Dalloway, a modernist novel that follows protagonist Clarissa Dalloway through a single day of her life.

1927

To the Lighthouse

Virginia Woolf publishes To the Lighthouse, a portrayal of the fictional Ramsay family as they vacation in Scotland. Both Virginia and Leonard Woolf believe it to be the best of her novels so far. It is definitely the bestselling, surpassing sales of all her other books.

1928

Orlando

Woolf publishes the novel Orlando, a book inspired by Vita Sackville-West. The novel follows the gender-switching title character as he/she moves through several centuries of history.

1929

A Room of One's Own

After giving a lecture series on women's literary abilities and obstacles, Virginia Woolf publishes the book A Room of One's Own. In it she argues that in order to write, a woman must have independence, manifested in material form as an income of £500 per year and a private room where she can write.

1931

The Waves

Woolf publishes her most conceptually challenging novel, The Waves. The book is written in the voices of six different characters and experiments with traditional notions of character, setting, genre and plot. Woolf describes the book as a "play-poem" rather than a novel.

1934

Death of Half-Brother George Duckworth

George Duckworth, Virginia Woolf's half-brother from her mother's previous marriage, dies.

Jul 18, 1937

Death of Nephew Julian Bell

Virginia Woolf's nephew Julian Bell, the oldest son of Vanessa and Clive Bell, is killed while driving an ambulance in the Spanish Civil War.

Sep 28, 1937

Death of Half-Brother Gerald Duckworth

Virginia Woolf's half-brother Gerald Duckworth dies in Milan, Italy. Two years later, Woolf will reveal in a memoir that Duckworth and his brother George sexually molested her and her sister Vanessa when they were children.

1937

The Years

Woolf publishes the novel The Years.

1938

Three Guineas

Woolf publishes Three Guineas, a long essay arguing that if more women occupied positions of power, there would be less war. The book's tone is harsher than her previous feminist tract A Room of One's Own, and proves controversial upon publication.

Mar 9, 1939

World War II

Great Britain declares war on Germany, marking England's entry into World War II. Fearing Nazi persecution due to Leonard's Jewish ethnicity, the Woolfs make plans to commit suicide if England is invaded. They leave their home in London and move out to Monk's House at Rodmell, where they hope they will be safer.

1940

The Blitz

The Woolfs' London home and the Hogarth Press offices are destroyed during the Blitz, the Germans' campaign of terror bombing over the city. Their papers and printing press are salvaged and brought to their country home in Rodmell. Virginia is working on a novel but is struggling with her mind; the stress of her work and the war brings on another serious bout of depression.

Mar 28, 1941

Virginia Woolf Commits Suicide

Convinced she will not recover from her current battle with mental illness, Virginia Woolf fills the pockets of her coat with stones and drowns herself in the Ouse River near Monk's House. Her body is discovered three weeks later. Leonard Woolf chooses to have the body cremated, and the ashes are scattered at Monk's House.

Jul 1941

Between the Acts

Virginia Woolf's final novel, Between the Acts, is published posthumously.

1953

A Writer's Diary

Leonard Woolf publishes A Writer's Diary, a collection of Virginia Woolf's personal journals.

Aug 14, 1969

Death of Husband Leonard Woolf

Leonard Woolf dies. His ashes are scattered at Monk's House.

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