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War and Peace
by Leo Tolstoy
Analysis: Allusions When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.
Literary and Philosophical References Laurence Sterne (1.1) Voltaire (2.1) Madame de Stael (4.2) Rousseau, "Of the Social Contract" (1.1) Caesar, (1.1) The Gallic Wars Mozart, "The Spring" (1.1) Rousseau, (1.1) Julie ou la Nouvelle Heloise Karl von Echartshausen, A Key to the Mysteries of Nature (about magic, alchemy, etc. – a very popular work that also found an audience in Freemasons) (1.1) Thiers, (1.2) The History of the Consulate and the Empire Napoleon's journals from St. Helena (1.2) Virgil, (2.1) The Aeneid Moliere, (2.1) Les Fourberies de Scapin Thomas a Kempis, " Of the Imitation of Christ" (2.2) Molière, Georges Dandin (2.2) Karamzin, Poor Liza (2.5) Racine, Phèdre (2.5) Jean de La Fontaine, (3.2) Joconde Madame de Genlis, Les Chevaliers du Cygne (3.2) Plutarch, "Life of Poplicola" (Epilogue.1) Biblical References Historical References Napoleon (1.1) Battle of Austerlitz (1.1) The French Revolution (1.1) The 18th Brumaire (when Napoleon overthrew the existing French government and installed himself as first consul) (1.1) Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and Turkey (1.1) Freemasons (1.1) Napoleon's occupation of Vienna in 1805 (1.2) Demosthenes (1.2) The English Club (2.1) General Bagration's successful campaign in Italy in 1799-1800 (2.1) The execution of King Louis XVI (2.1) Robespierre's Reign of Terror (2.1) Napoleon's 1806 victories in Prussia and occupation of Berlin (2.1) Marquise de Souza's pre-revolutionary Paris salon (2.2) Religious wanderers in Russian Orthodoxy (2.2) Napoleon and Alexander's treaty at Tilsit in 1807 (2.2) Speransky, Head of the Ministry of the Interior (2.3) The Napoleonic Code, the set of codified laws put in place by his government (2.3) Russian annexation of Finland in 1808 (2.3) Napoleon crossing the Pyrenees into Spain in 1808 (2.3) Napoleon's annulment of his marriage to Josephine and remarriage to Maria-Louisa of Austria (2.5) Napoleon's arrest of Pope Pius VII in 1809 (2.5) The Continental System, Napoleon's blockade of trade between Europe and England (3.1) Battle of Thermopylae (3.1) Battle of Borodino in 1812 (3.2) Rastopchin, Governor of Moscow (3.3) False accusation and murder of Vereshchagin (3.3) French retreat from Moscow (4.1) General Kutuzov falling out of favor (4.4) Tsar Alexander falling into mysticism and conservatism and leaving governing to subordinates (Epilogue.1) Congress of Vienna in 1814-15 (Epilogue.2) Napoleon III (Epilogue.2)
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