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Analysis

War and Peace Allusions & Cultural References

When authors refer to other great works, people, and events, it’s usually not accidental. Put on your super-sleuth hat and figure out why.

Literary and Philosophical References

Biblical References

Historical References

  • Napoleon (1.1)
  • Battle of Austerlitz (1.1)
  • The French Revolution (1.1)
  • The 18th Brumaire (when Napoleon overthrew the existing French government and installed himself as first consul) (1.1)
  • Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and Turkey (1.1)
  • Freemasons (1.1)
  • Napoleon's occupation of Vienna in 1805 (1.2)
  • Demosthenes (1.2)
  • The English Club (2.1)
  • General Bagration's successful campaign in Italy in 1799-1800 (2.1)
  • The execution of King Louis XVI (2.1)
  • Robespierre's Reign of Terror (2.1)
  • Napoleon's 1806 victories in Prussia and occupation of Berlin (2.1)
  • Marquise de Souza's pre-revolutionary Paris salon (2.2)
  • Religious wanderers in Russian Orthodoxy (2.2)
  • Napoleon and Alexander's treaty at Tilsit in 1807 (2.2)
  • Speransky, Head of the Ministry of the Interior (2.3)
  • The Napoleonic Code, the set of codified laws put in place by his government (2.3)
  • Russian annexation of Finland in 1808 (2.3)
  • Napoleon crossing the Pyrenees into Spain in 1808 (2.3)
  • Napoleon's annulment of his marriage to Josephine and remarriage to Maria-Louisa of Austria (2.5)
  • Napoleon's arrest of Pope Pius VII in 1809 (2.5)
  • The Continental System, Napoleon's blockade of trade between Europe and England (3.1)
  • Battle of Thermopylae (3.1)
  • Battle of Borodino in 1812 (3.2)
  • Rastopchin, Governor of Moscow (3.3)
  • False accusation and murder of Vereshchagin (3.3)
  • French retreat from Moscow (4.1)
  • General Kutuzov falling out of favor (4.4)
  • Tsar Alexander falling into mysticism and conservatism and leaving governing to subordinates (Epilogue.1)
  • Congress of Vienna in 1814-15 (Epilogue.2)
  • Napoleon III (Epilogue.2)
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