For much of Water for Elephants, Jacob is almost painfully old. He can barely walk, it's a struggle to bathe himself, and many of his desires are severely limited. He thinks about fresh fruit with the same longing he used to reserve for sex. And yet at his core, his personality remains unchanged; he's still the same person on the inside. To make sense of this, he retreats into the past, focusing on a time when his inside and outside matched – a time of adventure, wonder, excitement, and drama. It seems like all of those qualities are missing from his current life. Even though Jacob has aged, his desire for excitement and wonder has remained. And through his decision to return to the circus, we know he's still got that gumption he always had. So are we supposed to fear growing old after reading this book? Or is the message more optimistic?