We have changed our privacy policy. In addition, we use cookies on our website for various purposes. By continuing on our website, you consent to our use of cookies. You can learn about our practices by reading our privacy policy.
© 2016 Shmoop University, Inc. All rights reserved.

Reconstruction Statistics

By the Numbers

Life expectancy for white males in 1870: 44.1 years
Life expectancy for white females in 1870: 46.4 years2

Estimated mean life expectancy at birth for American blacks during the entire nineteenth century: 33.7 years for both sexes3

Population of the United States in 1860: 31.4 million
Population of the United States in 1865: 35.7 million4

Black population of the United States in 1860: 4.4 million
Black population of the United States in 1860, as a percentage of the total population: 14.1%
Percentage of the black population of the United States in 1860 that lived in the South: more than 90%5

Americans living in urban centers of more than 8,000 inhabitants in 1860: Fewer than 1 in 5.6

Percentage of Americans living in rural areas in 1860: more than 80%.
Percentage of Americans living in rural areas today: fewer than 3%.7

Percentage of Americans living in urban areas in 1810: 6%
Percentage of Americans living in urban areas in 1860: 20%.8

Percentage of American workers working in non-farm employment in 1810: 21%
Percentage of American workers working in non-farm employment in 1860: 40 45%.9

Population growth of Chicago between 1850 and 1860: 375%
Number of rail lines that terminated in Chicago in 1860: 15.10

Miles of railroad track laid in the United States by 1860: 30,000.

Passenger travel time from New York City to Cincinnati in 1800: three weeks
…in 1830: one week
…in 1860: two days11

Decrease in wholesale commodity prices between 1815-1860: 45%
Decrease in consumer prices between 1815-1860 (estimated): 50%.12

Number of Confederate soldiers killed during the Civil War: 260,000
Number of Union soldiers killed during the Civil War: 360,000
Confederate soldiers killed, as a percentage of the South's total white male population: more than 20%.13

Number of black men who served in the Union army: more than 186,000 (over 70% of them were recruited or conscripted from the slave states)
Percentage of Union army that was black by the end of the war: about 10%.14

Number of slaves who rebelled throughout the South by 1864: more than 400,000.15

Population of the United States in 1870: 39.8 million
Black population of the United States in 1870: 4.9 million (12.7% of the total)16

Population increase in the United States between 1860 and 1870: 26.6% (despite more than 600,000 Americans being killed in the Civil War).17

Urban population of the United States in 1870: 9.9 million
Rural population of the United States in 1870: 28.7 million18

People who Shmooped this also Shmooped...