Study Guide

Mark Twain Timeline

Nov 30, 1835

Mark Twain Born

Samuel Langhorne Clemens is born in Florida, Missouri, the sixth child of John Marshall and Jane Lampton Clemens.

Dec 19, 2019

Family Moves to Hannibal

The Clemens family moves to Hannibal, Missouri, a riverbank town that is a frequent stop for steamboats traveling the Mississippi. Young Samuel reveres the riverboat pilots and hopes to become one himself.

Dec 19, 2019

Death of Twain's Father

Samuel's father John Clemens dies, forcing the family into financial hardship.

Dec 19, 2019

Twain Takes Work as Printer

At the age of 15, Samuel leaves school and goes to work as a printer in Hannibal.

Dec 19, 2019

Apprentice River Pilot

Samuel Clemens begins a successful two-year apprenticeship to become a licensed river pilot. He learns the lingo of the trade, including "mark twain," a phrase that refers to the river depth at which a boat is safe to navigate. He soon adopts it as his pen name.

Jun 1, 1858

Death of Twain's Brother

Twain's youngest brother, Henry, is killed tragically at the age of 20 in an explosion on the steamboat Pennsylvania. Henry had been training to become a steamboat pilot, at Twain's encouragement. The devastated Twain feels responsible for Henry's death the rest of his life.

Apr 1, 1861

Civil War

The Civil War breaks out. Trade along the Mississippi River is halted, forcing an end to Twain's steamboat career. Twain spends two weeks training in a volunteer Confederate militia before it disbands.

Dec 19, 1862

Twain Travels West

In an adventure later chronicled in the book Roughing It, Twain travels to Nevada with his brother Orion, who had been named the secretary to the territorial governor. He tries his hand at mining and other schemes before becoming a reporter for the Virginia City (Nev.) Daily Territorial Enterprise.

Dec 19, 1864

Twain in California

Twain travels to northern California, visiting Calavaras County before settling in San Francisco.

Nov 18, 1865

"Jumping Frog" Published

The short story "Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog" (later "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calavaras County") appears in the New York Saturday Press. The story proves extremely popular and raises Twain's profile as a writer.

Dec 19, 1866

Twain Begins Lecturing

Twain travels to Hawaii as a reporter for San Francisco's Alta California newspaper. When he returns to the mainland a few months later, he gives his first public lecture. It's a hit.

Dec 31, 1867

Twain Meets Future Wife

Twain is introduced to Olivia "Livy" Langdon, the sister of a friend. He is instantly smitten.

Dec 19, 1869

The Innocents Abroad Published

Mark Twain's first book, The Innocents Abroad, becomes a bestseller.

Dec 19, 1870

Twain Weds, Fathers First Child

Twain marries Olivia Langdon, who becomes an important editor of his work. Their son Langdon is born later that year.

Dec 19, 1872

Twain in Connecticut

Twain moves his family to Hartford, Connecticut. He publishes Roughing It, the memoir of his years in the West. The year is one of tragedy and joy—the couple's daughter Susy is born, but their son Langdon dies of diphtheria.

Dec 19, 1873

Twain Publishes The Gilded Age

Twain publishes the satiric novel The Gilded Age, its title giving a name to an entire era of American history. His most successful invention, the self-pasting scrapbook, makes its debut the same year.

Dec 19, 1874

Clara Clemens Born

Daughter Clara is born, the only one of Twain's children to outlive her father.

Dec 19, 1876

Tom Sawyer

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is published.

Dec 19, 1880

Jean Clemens Born

Livy Clemens gives birth to the couple's fourth and final child, a daughter named Jean.

Dec 19, 1883

Life on the Mississippi

Twain publishes Life on the Mississippi, his memoir of his years as a steamboat pilot.

Dec 19, 1884

Twain Founds Publishing Company

Twain founds his own publishing company, Charles L. Webster & Co. (named after his nephew and co-owner Charles L. Webster). It turns out to be a bad financial move—the company's struggles will eventually ruin his family's finances.

Dec 19, 1885

Huck Finn

In the span of less than a year, Twain publishes both his greatest fiction and non-fiction works: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finnand a biography of President Ulysses S. Grant.

Dec 19, 1889

Connecticut Yankee

Twain publishes A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Critics slam the book.

Dec 19, 1891

Twain in Europe

His finances in shambles following a series of poor business decisions, Twain moves his family from Hartford to Europe for cheaper living.

Dec 19, 1894

Twain's Last Novel

Pudd'nhead Wilson, Twain's last novel, is published. After ten difficult years, Twain's publishing house, Charles L. Webster & Co., finally goes belly-up. The writer finds himself essentially bankrupt. Close friend Henry Huttleston Rogers takes over his finances, saving him from complete disaster.

Dec 19, 1895

Lecture Tour

Twain hits the road for a worldwide lecture tour in order to pay back his creditors.

Dec 19, 1896

Death of Susy Clemens

Twain's 24-year-old daughter Susy dies of meningitis in the U.S. while Twain is lecturing in Europe. Twain, who was particularly close to his oldest daughter, is devastated. He never fully recovers from her death, which marks the end of his most successful period as a writer.

Dec 19, 2019

Death of Livy Clemens

Twain's wife Livy dies after a serious two-year illness. Following his wife's death, Twain moves to New York City and begins writing his autobiography.

Oct 25, 1906

Family Troubles

Twain's youngest daughter Jean is institutionalized due to severe epilepsy. Twain's biographer, Albert Bigelow Paine, moves in with Twain to collect material.

Dec 19, 2019

Angelfish Club

Twain moves into a house in Connecticut that he names Stormfield. Lonely and missing his wife and daughters, he forms a club of young girls called the Angelfish Club who meet regularly at his house to play cards.

Dec 19, 2019

Death of Jean Clemens

Twain's youngest daughter, Jean Clemens, dies.

Apr 10, 1910

Death of Mark Twain

Mark Twain dies at the age of 74 at his home in Redding, Connecticut.