Study Guide

Animal Movement - Common Mistakes

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Common Mistakes

Animal Movement

Oversimplification of the Physics of Aerodynamics

According to NASA, many textbooks incorrectly describe the aerodynamic principles of flight because they attempt to oversimplify them. There is nothing simple about how an airfoil works, and any attempts at simplifying it will likely result in a misrepresentation.

Transverse Gallop vs. Rotary Gallop

The transverse gallop and the rotary gallop are both gallops where the front feet almost hit at the same time and the back feet almost hit at the same time. The easy way to remember the Rotary Gallop is when the order of the foot-falls rotates. The hind limbs hit the ground right then left. The front limbs hit the ground left then right.

Schooling vs. Schoaling

Schoaling is any behavior where fish swim together in a social group. Schooling is a special type of schoaling where the fish swim identically to each other, all facing the same direction. The easy way to remember this is that the word schooling is like schoaling, but it has two identical letter O's. So, the O's in school are the same, just like the fish in a school are the same, but the A and the O in schoal are not the same, just next to each other.

Animal Circulation

Arteries vs. Veins vs. Capillaries

Arteries starts with A. Away starts with A. Arteries lead away from the heart.

Alternatively, think of them in alphabetical order. "A" then "C" then "V." "A" is the first letter of the alphabet. The blood starts in the Arteries. Next, it goes to the Capillaries. Lastly, it goes to the Veins before returning to the heart.

Diagrams of Circulatory Systems

Remember that the key to understanding most diagrams of circulatory systems is the red and blue color. Red means that the blood is oxygenated. Blue means that it is deoxygenated. Anything red is traveling somewhere between the lungs (or gills or tracheae) and the cells. Anything blue is traveling somewhere between the cells and the lungs (or the gills or the tracheae). The color difference does not tell you anything about where the blood is in relation to the heart.

Animal Respiration

Trachea vs. Tracheae

Trachea is the windpipe tube that leads towards the lungs in mammals. The word tracheae refers to the system of tiny tubes that comprises an insect's respiratory tract. Remember the difference because trachea ends in "a" as in one. There is "a" tube in a trachea. There are many tubes in tracheae.


Afferent vs. Efferent

Afferent starts with "A." Arrives starts with A = Afferent Arives

Efferent starts with "E." Exit starts with E = Efferent Exits

Temperature Regulation

Endotherm vs. Endothermic vs. Endoderm (Ectotherm, Exothermic, and Ectoderm are Also Analogous)

EndoTHERM is the type of animal we discuss here that creates its own heat.

EndoTHERMIC describes a chemical reaction where the system absorbs heat
EndoDERM is one of three layers of cells in the developing embryo, this one eventually becomes internal structures such as the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs.

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