This is the first battle in the American Theatre of the Seven Years War. (You might notice that this will actually make the Seven Years War last nine years. You're right. The logic here is that the main fighting doesn't start until 1756.)
In any case, this was almost a worldwide war involving nearly every great power in Europe at the time. This included archenemies Britain and France, who started the clash in the Ohio River Valley with this fight.
This marked the end of war in North America (war in Europe would officially end five days later with the Treaty of Hubertsusburg. You'll notice we got the cooler name). Canada was handed over to the British as part of the settlement. The French still owned a huge tract of land called Louisiana, but no one was home.
A confederation of Native Americans mostly from the Great Lakes region banded together to fight British policies against them. This is one of the reasons the British were so keen on putting more redcoats on American soil, which would be paid for by the Stamp Act.
Ironically enough, this was the second tax imposed on sweet imports. The Molasses Act of 1733 (tee hee) had never been enforced, and the intent was, with this new law, there might be a bit of enforcement (it also expired in 1763). It taxed certain goods (like sugar), and made it illegal to export certain goods to anyone but Britain.
The main attraction of this guide, guys. This was the first internal tax imposed on the colonies and was, to put it mildly, less than popular. For the next year or so, there were protests and angry mobs against the act.
A not-really-legal assembly of colonists met up and drafted a petition to the King. The petition? Cut it out with this Stamp Act nonsense.
Just shy of a year old, the crown throws in the towel and repeals the Stamp Act. The Declaratory Act, stating that Britain did indeed have the right to tax the colonies, was issued on the same day.
You might know about this one. It's that oh-so-important doc that was signed on July 4th: you know, the day every year you get to eat hot dogs and watch fireworks at the same time.