It's 1903, and Du Bois is way ahead of the game. His account of what it means to be African American in the U.S. will become one of the foundational texts of Ethnic Studies.
African Americans and other ethnic minorities are standing up for equal rights: marches, protests, and acts of civil disobedience are all over the newspaper headlines. Some of the results: desegregation, the rise of "Black Power," and, soon enough, the beginning of Ethnic Studies.
Ethnic minority students—including Native Americans, African Americans, Filipino Americans, and Asian Americans—cut classes to protest the lack of Ethnic Studies programs and courses at the University.
Students at Berkeley follow the lead of students at San Francisco State University and stop going to classes.
The student strike pays off big time when San Francisco State University gives in to student pressure and establishes the first College of Ethnic Studies in the country.
Berkeley gives in to students and faculty, and the second Ethnic Studies program in the country is founded. From then on, Ethnic Studies programs mushroom in universities all over the country.
This manifesto was a huge influence on the "Red Power" movement of the 1960s, which was all about Native Americans agitating for a fairer deal. They were in America first, after all.
Gloria Anzaldua's mix of theory, poetry and autobiography in this book takes people by storm. In this book, she develops her thoughts on the "border," which becomes one of the most important concepts in Chicano/a Studies.
This is one of the first comprehensive histories of Asian Americans in the United States. Yes: Asian Americans have been here all along, too.
It's about to get relative: Rosaldo argues that truth is always a matter of cultural perspective. According to him, nothing is completely, 100% objective.
Morrison's a rock star: not only is she a Nobel Prize-winning novelist, she's also a smarty-pants literary critic. In this book, she shows how that ethnicity and race aren't just issues in ethnic literature—they also play a big role in literature written by white American authors.
Finally, someone brings together all of these different ethnic perspectives in one book and explains what they all have in common.