Study Guide

The Nicomachean Ethics Allusions

By Aristotle

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Literary and Philosophical References

  • Aeschylus (3.1.1111a10, 12)
  • Anaxandrides (7.10.1152a21)
  • Aphrodite (7.6.1149b16)
  • Cyclops (10.9.1180a29)
  • Empedocles (7.3.1147a21, 1147b13; 8.1.1155b8)
  • Endymion (10.8.1178b20)
  • Epicharmus (9.7.1167b26)
  • Euripides
  • Alcmaeon (3.1.1110a29)
  • Orestes (7.14.1154b29; 9.9.1169b8)
  • Philoctetes (6.8.1142a4)
  • The Phoenician Women (9.6.1167a.33)
  • Other references (8.1.1155b3)
  • Hector of Troy (7.1.1145a21)
  • Heraclitus (2.3.1105a9; 8.1.1155b5; 10.5.1176a6)
  • Hesiod, Works and Days (9.10.1170b21)
  • Homer, The Iliad (2.9.1109b10; 3.8.1116a22; 3.8.1116b28; 7.1.1145a21; 7.6.1149b16; 8.11.1160b26;¬†8.11.1161a14)
  • The Odyssey (2.9.1109a33)
  • Inscription in the Temple of Apollo, Delos (1.8.1099a28-29)
  • King Priam of Troy (1.9.1100a7; 7.1.1145a21)
  • Plato (3.5.1113b15, 3.6.1115a10)
  • Niobe (7.4.1148a34)
  • Rhadamanthus (5.5.1132b26)
  • Satyrus (7.4.1148a35)
  • Simonides (1.10.1100b20; 4.1.1121a7)
  • Sophocles (7.2.1146a20; 7.3.1147b15; 7.9.1151b17)
  • Theodectes (7.7.1150b9)
  • Theognis (9.9.1170a.13; 9.12.1172a14; 10.9.1179b6)

Historical References

  • Anacharsis (10.6.1176b34)
  • Anaxagoras (6.7.1141b5; 10.8.1179a14)
  • Bias of Priene (5.2.1130a1)
  • Celts (as reckless warriors) (3.8.1115b29)
  • Eudoxus (10.2.1172b9)
  • Phalaris (7.5.1148b24)
  • Pythagoras (1.6.1096b5; 2.6.1106b30; 5.5.1132b21)
  • Protagoras (9.1.1164a25)
  • Sardanapalus (1.5.1095b22), the Assyrian king who lived for pleasure and died in a dramatic way. Eugene¬†Delacroix took his story as a subject for his painting.
  • Solon of Athens (1.10.1100a10; 10.8.1179a10)
  • Socrates (3.8.1116b4; 4.7.1127b25; 6.13.1144b18; 7.2.1145b23, 25; 7.3.1147b15)
  • Speusippus (1.6.1096b6; 7.13.1153b5)
  • Thales (6.7.1141b5)
  • Xenophanes (7.7.1150b12)

Pop Culture References

  • Anthropos, "Human Being" (Olympic boxing champ) (7.4.1147b36)
    Milo of Croton (2.6.1106b4)

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