United States, Switzerland
After a brief introduction in an unnamed location (one filled with heroin, so it's either Colombia or New Hampshire), Bond spends his time flitting between the United States and Europe and back again. He vacays in Miami Beach, pursues Goldfinger to Geneva, and finally visits Goldfinger's Stud Farm (no, that's not where Channing Tatum was born) in Kentucky.
Most of the scenes in Goldfinger could be set anywhere. But Kentucky, of all places, is critical to the plot, because Goldfinger plans to sabotage the U.S. gold depository at Fort Knox. It's a real place, and although it may seem like Goldfinger is joking when he says the depository is located at the corner of Bullion Boulevard and Gold Vault Road, he's serious.
Fort Knox is a part of American lore. Any place filled with that much gold—allegedly—is almost mythical in nature. We say allegedly because conspiracy theorists, reality TV stars, and presidential candidates speculate that there may be no gold inside Fort Knox. Hmm, maybe Goldfinger's plot succeeded after all?