The speaker of Psalm 23 walks through the valley of the shadow of death with the guidance of the Lord as his shepherd. The valley likely represents his fear of death. Also, you could interpret walking through the valley to represent one particularly dangerous episode in the speaker's life, or you could say that all of life consists of walking through a valley where death looms as a possibility at any time. Maybe life is the valley of the shadow of death.
Questions About Morality
What does "I will fear no evil" mean? Does the speaker think that the Lord will protect him from evils, or merely that he can take comfort in the Lord when evils do occur?
Why is death like a "shadow"?
Does the speaker view all of life as a valley in the shadow of death, or is he referring to a more particular fear?
Does the word "house of the Lord" in the last line refer to the idea of Heaven?
Chew on This
Despite its overwhelmingly positive tone, Psalm 23 argues that life itself is a "valley of the shadow death," full of potential dangers and evils.
The speaker of Psalm 23 believes he will escape death and pass directly into heaven.