AP® English Literature and Composition
A Tale of One Test
It might have been a bummer to discover that the "critical" in "critical reading" did not mean you could yell things like, "Who's your daddy now, Dickens?" during a test, but cheer up, MacShmoopers.
Shmoop's guide to the AP English Literature exam will help you navigate the murky waters of literature... critically.
In this guide, you'll get review, drills, and practice exams while you learn...
- what the word "critical" actually means.
- how to decode—and beat—those pesky free response prompts.
- the fine art of memorizing the mysterious language of literary analysis.
Let's turn that Heart of Darkness into a heart of knowledge.
Terms of Literary Analysis
When practicing literary analysis, try this four-step process to break it down like the Fresh Prince:
- Identify the literary devices
- Understand the function of each device in the passage
- Analyze how effective that device is in playing its role
- Determine the tone and themes created by the literary devices
Imagery and Figurative Language
Using imagery and figurative language is like putting a powerful, sweaty athlete in formal wear, but for writing. It's not that we're turning sentences into fabulous paper dolls with various prom-themed outfits, of course. Without imagery and figurative language, the story is still there, and the characters are still creepy, endearing, or sad, but with them, the whole picture changes.
Everything is dressed up in its snazzy best, giving us stories and characters that make us wet ourselves with tears, laughter, or fear. As you may have noticed in class, imagery and figurative language play a huge role in literary analysis. Many questions on the exam go into the functions and effects of these particularly great pieces of language, but before we need to be able to pick out these items on sight before we can identify functions and effects.
Knowing the figurative language devices from the list of literary terms is half the battle. This will help you answer simple questions like "Which of these devices is used in the passage?" If this were the only type of figurative language question, though, we'd skip around the room and do some back flips, Olympic gymnast-style.
As it turns out, you'll also see more in-depth questions asking you to identify nuanced details. These typically involve aspects of figurative language like metaphor and personification, in which you'll need to identify both the literal and figurative elements of comparisons. Discussions of imagery will also appear here, since you'll need to know when something uses imagery as well as how to identify the type of image to boot.
Audience and Purpose
After looking at what is sure to seem a robust and inspiring list of literary devices and figurative language, we are left with the biggest question there is, after "Where does the TV remote go when I can't find it?" This question is, of course, "Why do we use any of this stuff?" Beautiful uses of language are absolutely meant to be just that: beautiful. As it turns out, these little beauties have brains—and a purpose—to boot.
The simple fact we face as analyzers of great literature is that the authors wouldn't have done it for no reason. These people aren't toddlers with finger paint and a leather couch (there's no reason for what's bound to happen there). They're illustrious writers! There is always a reason. Like we ourselves, each device and use of language has a greater, cosmic purpose...and it's more than just to beautify the surrounding words.
The exam will ask you in many cases to identify what particular bit of figurative delight you've encountered, but it will ask about its effect or function as well. In other instances, you could be asked about function on a larger scale. Sometimes this is about the organizational choices the author makes in general and the purpose of certain structures.
It would be foolhardy to think that anything doesn't have a purpose. On the other hand, it would also be foolhardy to think they have a porpoise.
Voice and Tone
Like raindrops on roses and whiskers on kittens, tone is one of the AP English Literature exam's favorite things. Some questions come and go on this test, but tone questions are not on that list. The good news is that tone isn't typically devious or brain-numbing. It honestly wants to know the "feel" of the passage: is it dark, comedic, romantic, and so on. Since we're asking about feelings, you and your feelings are your biggest asset. Isn't that great to hear?
Mood, voice, and attitude are all closely related to tone, and these are similarly big picture questions. We might be asked to identify the overall mood, voice, or attitude, or perhaps the location of a shift, or a particular attitude of the author or character toward another character, idea, or other development. In the end, we're all just feeling feelings about feelings.
It's no secret that the passages appearing on this exam are far from "light" reading. There's no Oprah's Book Club selection here, though we wouldn't hate that, either. Classic literature isn't known for its readability, which is why the exam asks tons of comprehension questions. The classic comprehension test, as we know, is summarization. If we can read something and then restate the plot, or a characterization, or a theme in our own words, we have generally understood what we read.
Comprehension launches us into analysis, but understanding is a necessary foundation. Comprehension questions will ask you to identify summaries of certain parts of a passage, the implications of certain words, characterizations, comparisons, or just an important detail.
The goal of all of these is to ask, "Did you get it?" Well, did you?
Form and Structure
In recent years, structural questions on the exam have been growing rarer and rarer. They're (almost) exclusively about poetic formats. While there may only be one or two of these on the exam, knowing the various forms of poetry aids in racking up one or two more correct answers.
Form and structure questions may ask about meter or rhythm, or they may ask about the type of poem. (We can hope for a haiku, but it's unlikely.) Most poetic forms have at least a few characteristics that differentiate it from the other types, but process of elimination is frequently useful.
In prose, a form and structure question may ask about plot. Plot is notoriously difficult to pin down on these types of exams, though, because we don't have the entire novel in front of us—just a tiny piece. Regardless, knowing basic plot elements can't hurt, unless you hit yourself in the head with Freytag's Pyramid. That probably isn't super likely, though.
Diction and Syntax
Thankfully for everyone, vocabulary and grammar questions on the AP English Literature exam tend not to focus on scientific jargon, obscure verb tenses, or the nuances of semi vs. full colon. Usually, they ask for the meaning of certain words or various parts of speech in relation to another part. The most popular grammar option asks for referents or other connections, such as the subject of a verb phrase. We don't need to know about dangling prepositions or split infinitives or any other grammatical faux pas, though.
Sneakily, these questions are another way of testing comprehension of the passage, made necessary by the intensely complicated nature of some excerpts and authors who undeniably get a bit carried away.
What's the difference between the AP English Literature exam and the AP English Language exam?
While both are conducted in English, the AP English Language exam focuses primarily on argumentation (like rhetorical strategies, not arguing with your best friend over where to eat lunch). The AP English Literature exam, on the other hand, focuses more on literary analysis. Also, many students will take AP English Language in junior year and AP English Literature in senior year. There's that, too.
Do I need to be able to quote certain works in the essays?
It depends. Sorry.
If the text is given to you in the essay prompt, you must cite proof from the selection to support your response. For the open-ended essay, you're free to do what you like. You can't exactly memorize every work of literature throughout history word for word, but having a few well-chosen lines handy can give your essays the equivalent of literary jazz hands. Just make sure they're applicable.
Am I supposed to know every passage that comes up?
It is probable, nay—almost certain—that you won't know every excerpt appearing on the multiple-choice and free response sections. The realistic goal is that even if you don't know the passage from experience, you will know about something similar from that genre or period and be able to use that knowledge to choose or write a brilliant answer. It's all about careful extrapolation…and sometimes sheer luck.
Who are the graders?
We've heard rumors about a genetically modified wildebeest lodged at AP headquarters who does all the grading, but it turned out to be unfounded. A computer grades the multiple-choice questions, and a combination of AP English Literature teachers (25%) and college English Composition instructors (75%) grade all the essays from around the country.
Is there a reading list?
There's no specific reading list or requirement. It's possible that your English class has a reading list, but the exam itself does not have one. Cue your sigh of relief.
Important note: The exam allows the use any work of literary merit on the open-ended essay. However, be careful about the whole "literary merit" thing, especially when it comes to modern literature. The Kite Runner is considered a work of literary merit, but The Hunger Games is not. Lord of the Rings, yes. Harry Potter, not so much. Drawing this distinction may inspire impassioned arguments in defense of your favorite books, but the free response section isn't the place to do it.
Can I use highlighters on the test?
Sadly, no. Using highlighters to annotate while you read is an excellent comprehension strategy, but this test is the story of a student alone with his/her (dark) blue or black pen. On the multiple-choice section, your only friend is your #2 pencil. Also, is there a #3 pencil? A #1 pencil?
What are the odds of passing?
The AP English Literature exam is about preparation, strength of will, and the ability to work through a hand cramp. On the 2015 exam, 56 percent of the 401,076 students who took the test scored a three or better.
When do I get my scores?
Slow down, speed racer. You haven't even taken the test yet. These people have more than one million essays to grade, so scores won't be available online until summer. Set up an account to access your scores online and get ready to click refresh about 9,000 times.
Will I be penalized for wrong answers on the multiple-choice section?
There is no penalty for wrong answers. If you have no clue whatsoever what the answer might be, guess. If minute 57 of 60 rolls around and you still have 10 questions left—guess! Bubble like you've never bubbled before and you may squeeze a few more correct answers out of the deal.
What if I have bad handwriting?
This is a fine line. Technically, the exam graders are warned that under no circumstance should a student's work be penalized for messiness. However, if your handwriting is so bad that it reaches the point of illegibility and the reader can't read it at all, you have a larger issue.
Write quickly, but remember that you're writing it for someone else to read, not your mom who knew what you were saying even when you were two and babbling with a diaper on your head.
My school does block scheduling. Can I still take the AP English Literature test?
Yes. The AP exams are only given in May, though, so you will have a distinct disadvantage if you only take a one-semester block of AP English in the fall. Practice with Shmoop's drills and exams so you can go into your test with literary skills blazing like Luke Skywalker's lightsaber, rather than dull from winter holiday and whatever it is you do over spring break.
Will I get my test booklet back?
Your test booklet are not automatically sent back. For the low, low price of only $7, you can request it be mailed to you. Perhaps you want to frame and hang it above your bed. If it doesn't turn out so well, you may also want to throw it maniacally into the fireplace or shred it into bedding for your pet gerbil, Steven.
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