Study Guide

Equal Protection History

Controversies Over Desegregation and Admissions Quotas

Courts played central role in the desegregation of American schools beginning in 1954Many court...

Brown v. Board of Education

In 1954 case Brown v. Board, Supreme Court ordered integration of segregated American public...

After Brown v. Board

Slow implementation of school desegregation after Brown led Supreme Court to impose more specific...

Affirmative Action

Affirmative action did not originate in the schools. The term was first used by President John...

University of California v. Bakke

1970s affirmative action program at UC Davis Medical School set a specific racial quota, setting...

Reverse Discrimination?

Supreme Court has grown more and more skeptical of affirmative action programs in recent...

Gender Discrimination and the Law

In 1976 case Craig v. Boren, Supreme Court ruled on constitutionality of laws that treated men...

Equal Protection vs. Legitimate Classification

14th Amendment guarantees equal protection but still allows government to make certain legitimate...

The Old Standard: Restrained Review

Until 1972, courts subjected gender classifications only to restrained review of Lindsley...

Craig v. Boren

In Craig v. Boren, Supreme Court established new standard for reviewing gender classificationsNew...

The New Standard: "Intermediate" Review

Craig v. Boren precedent required courts to take a hard look at any laws that treat the genders...

Same-Sex Marriage & the 14th Amendment

The fight over same-sex marriage is a relatively recent one. Initially, when activists tried to...

The Road to Lawrence v. Texas

As recently as 1986, the Supreme Court took an overtly hostile stance toward homosexuality. In...

The Gay Marriage Debate and the Due Process Clause

Spoiler alert: same-sex marriage is now legal in the U.S. This happened on June 26, 2015 in a...