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While the federal government and federal courts were urging private employers and state agencies to take "affirmative action" to increase minority hiring, America's colleges took the same approach to diversify their student bodies. A decade after Brown, African-American enrollment in colleges had changed little. In 1955, only 4.9% of all college students, ages 18 to 24, were black. The number grew to 6.5% in the five years following the decision, but had returned to 4.9% by 1965.