Study Guide

1984 by George Orwell: Book Study Guide

By George Orwell

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George Orwell's 1984: Novel Study Guide Introduction


If you've ever seen the so-bad-it's-good reality show Big Brother, you should close this page right now and get back to watching, because guess what? You're already familiar with George Orwell's dystopian classic, 1984. Phew, that was easy.

Think we're kidding?

Well, you're right, we kind of are.

But, it is worth noting that Big Brother—where contestants are constantly monitored while living in a house together—totally got its name from 1984 in what might be the most awesome interpretation of classic literature to modern day reality TV programming of all time (sorry, Shakespearean Idol).

So, what does any of this tell us about the book itself? Well for one, if it's still getting referenced in pop culture today, then it's gotta be crazy-influential—dare we say, iconic. And considering it was written waaay back in 1949, it's managed to stay pretty darn relevant to audiences here in the present. Its message? Something along the lines of, "Don't let the government have too much power or they will make your lives completely miserable and possibly torture you for extended periods of time."

The story takes place in the year 1984, which was still 35 years in the future when this book was published. It follows Winston, a painfully average dude who works for the Ministry of Truth, editing old newspaper articles to revise the past. In the future, life kinda sucks. The world is in a state of constant war and government surveillance is the norm—people even have telescreens in their homes that watch their every move (sound familiar?). 

Oh yeah, and love is outlawed. You read that right: Love is against the law.

This proves troublesome for dear old Winston when he—you guessed it—falls in love with Julia, his coworker by day and foxy undercover rebel by night. Things seem peachy at first—the two spend time in the country and find a secret room in the city where they can escape surveillance together. Maybe the future isn't so bad after all.

Not so fast.

The two become more resistant to party rule as the story progresses, until they're both found out by the Secret Police and taken to the Ministry of Love (which should be more accurately titled the Ministry of Torture and Brainwashing). We don't want to give away too much, but things go full Hostel-status and a cage of hungry rats is involved. Winston walks away a broken man.

So while we may enjoy watching Big Brother, let's just be thankful Big Brother isn't watching usyet.

What is 1984 About and Why Should I Care?

A bald Natalie Portman, a sunglasses-sporting Keanu Reeves, and a pale Christian Bale. Believe it or not, even if you’ve never read 1984, these superstars have burned its premise and plot onto your Shmoopster brain. Oh yes indeedy, you know 1984 like the back of your hand, and more than likely it hits home for you. Still not quite sure what we’re talking about? V for Vendetta, The Matrix, Equilibrium – we’ve been imagining what life would be like if it were ruled by an oppressive, tyrannical government for years, and probably will continue to imagine it for a long time to come. But the question on our minds is, why ?

Why is this plot so continually compelling to us, to authors, to moviemakers, and to artists? Isn’t America the land of the free, the home of the brave? The place with spacious skies, amber waves of grain, opportunity at every corner, where dreams come true? So what are we so worried about – what’s with all of the anxiety?

Well, if you’ve read our discussion on “Making the Constitution” in Shmoop History, you’ll know that a constitution is a tricky thing to make, a good government is a hard thing to pin down, and the protection of civil liberties and basic rights (like free speech), is not always clear cut.

Take, for example, the syndicated talk show host, Michael Savage, who, on July 21st, 2008, exclaimed to eight million listeners, “I'll tell you what autism is. In 99 percent of the cases, it's a brat who hasn't been told to cut the act out. That's what autism is” (source). Savage, who holds two masters degrees in the medical field and a PhD in nutritional ethnomedicine, argued that more and more children are being misdiagnosed with autism as a way of increasing funding for schools, doctors, and pharmaceutical companies. As you can imagine, Savage’s words sparked heated debate and outrage from people all over the world, especially from those who battle or know someone who battles this neurological disorder. Many demanded that he be fired, that he apologize, or that he be punished. Radio stations across the country dropped his show. But here’s where it gets muddy. The First Amendment in the Bill of Rights grants all U.S. citizens the right to free speech:

“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”

Just as Savage’s listeners can petition against him, he has the right to say whatever he chooses. Sure, he has a responsibility as a talk show host to be balanced and thoughtful in his remarks, but, ultimately, he can exercise free speech. Tricky stuff, no? But can you imagine how easy it would be for us to ban Savage from the radio or to prevent him from ever speaking publicly again?

These are difficult questions that, in a society that values civil liberties, will arise over and over again. 1984 shows us what happens when we stop struggling with these questions and allow a small group of people in power to make all of the judgment calls.

1984 Resources

Movie or TV Productions

1984 Movie
1984, directed by Michael Radford and released in the year 1984.


Apple Computers Ad
The big, famous commercial you’ve heard SO much about.


"Exploring Burma through George Orwell"
NPR's Melissa Block interviews Emma Larkin, the author of Finding George Orwell in Burma. Larkin takes the listener/reader back in time and to Burma for an intriguing biographical glimpse into Orwell's days as Eric Arthur Blair and the ways in which Burma's brutal military regime inspired the government media censorship, propaganda, and "newspeak" he depicts in 1984.


1984: The Opera
The official website for the opera version of 1984. Check out information about the opera and see production photos.

"Why I Write"
In this 1946 essay, George Orwell describes his own historically-motivated journey to becoming a writer and provides four thoughtful and fun reasons why everyone should do it.

The Orwell Library
A great place to find primary sources, including the texts of Orwell's novel, essays, articles, and more.

1984 by George Orwell: Book Study Guide Study Group

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