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While it's definitely up for debate whether Foaly (who's a centaur) is a major or minor character, we're calling him minor because we don't get a whole lot of his motivation in this particular story. He's a genius for sure (5.27), but the only real part of his personality that we get to see is his pride in his work, and he mostly operates in the background, making it possible for everyone else to get their work done without dying.
The one interesting and unique facet to Foaly is his unconventionally strong relationship with Holly. "Centaurs don't make many friends," so when Holly is captured Foaly is genuinely "worried he might lose one of the few he had" (5.72). He's also the only character who doesn't seem to have a huge problem with still respecting people who are criminals, since he refers to Mulch as "Mr. Mulch" and has a subtle bit of admiration for Artemis's abilities at such a young age.