This book has a surprisingly small number of shout-outs, especially given how long, philosophical, and intellectual it is. But the book is set in an alternate universe, so the number of "real world" references is limited. The arts and history mentioned in the book are largely fictional. Which is kind of cool, really.
Literary and Philosophical References
Aristotle (all of the volume titles are references to Aristotle's writings; throughout 3.7)
Atlantis (184.108.40.2061, 220.127.116.11, throughout all of Volume 3)