Study Guide

The Garden of Forking Paths

By Jorge Luis Borges

The Garden of Forking Paths Introduction

Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges didn't see much point in writing long novels. In fact, he once called the process "a laborious and impoverishing extravagance." Listen to what he had to say on the matter:

To go on for five hundred pages developing an idea whose perfect oral exposition is possible in a few minutes! A better course of procedure is to pretend that these books already exist, and then to offer a resume, a commentary... (source)

A master of the short story, Borges made an art out of condensing all of the complexity of a lengthy tome into a neat little package of a few pages or so. By having his stories focus on the discussion of imaginary texts, Borges was able to postulate the existence of some really bizarre literature: nonsensical collections of letters and symbols, catalogs of animals and objects, and a duplicate copy of Don Quixote that is somehow better than the original. The story "The Garden of Forking Paths" includes imaginary excerpts from one of Borges' most impossible literary inventions: a novel of infinite endings.

Originally published in Buenos Aires in 1941, "The Garden of Forking Paths" became the first of Borges' stories to appear in English, translated by sci-fi writer Anthony Boucher in 1948 for the American publication Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine. The story received favorable critical reviews and helped establish Borges as a global sensation.

Nevertheless, Borges' popularity in North America and Europe never quite caught up to the mania people felt for him in his native Argentina. Unlike several of the writers who were inspired by him (including Gabriel García Márquez, José Saramago, and J.M. Coetzee), Borges was never awarded a Nobel Prize in literature. Not a man to lose his sense of humor, Borges turned the snub into an opportunity for a joke, saying, "Not granting me the Nobel Prize has become a Scandinavian tradition; since I was born they have not been granting it to me" (source).

Borges wrote many, many great short stories, but this is one of his best, and his most famous. We hope you like it as much as we do.

What is The Garden of Forking Paths About and Why Should I Care?

As a wise man once sang, "the times, they are a-changin'." Why, when we were your age... okay, we won't go down that road. But seriously, did you realize that fifteen years ago most people didn't have cell phones, let alone Smartphones equipped with Internet access and GPS? Google, Facebook, YouTube, Shmoop... these are all fairly recent developments, yet we've become completely dependent on them. If a day goes by that we don't use at least one of these websites, we start to feel a little bit nervous and twitchy. When even big-name news organizations are relying on Twitter, it's tough to remember why you can't use Wikipedia as a source for your history paper.

Lots of people have devoted themselves to studying how all this technology, sometimes referred to as "new media," is affecting our lives. Some have argued that the Internet, in its ever-growing complexity, is even changing the way we read. We read differently on a screen than we do on a page, skimming rather than stopping over every word, not necessarily reading from beginning to end. The Internet has heralded "hypertext," a densely woven series of pages that link to one another, so that we no longer read linearly (from the top of the page to the bottom), but also horizontally, circularly – even backwards. Think about the way we read Wikipedia – we look up one topic only to be distracted by a plethora of links to other articles. For example, you might start reading about new media and three hours later find yourself reading about balloon animals (a fascinating topic in its own right).

What does any of this have to do with Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges? Well, as it turns out, this digital culture we're currently swimming in might owe a lot to Borges' imagination, and to "The Garden of Forking Paths" in particular. In fact, the story plays such a foundational role in the mythos and culture of the digital era that it is the very first selection included in MIT's The New Media Reader, published in 2003. What's the connection? Well, as you read the story, whether it be in digital form or in (gasp!) a paper book, consider whether the infinite novel that Borges describes may be the very first hypertext. What do you think? Was Borges a visionary of the digital age?

The Garden of Forking Paths Resources


The Garden of Forking Paths...
Allen B. Ruch runs this website, an astounding collection of information about and inspired by the work of Jorge Luis Borges.

The Story
Read the complete text of "The Garden of Forking Paths."

All About Labyrinths
Want to know more about labyrinths? Visit the Labyrinth Society's webpage. Be sure to click through the labyrinth types.

The World Wide Labyrinth Locator
Find a labyrinth near you.

Articles & Interviews

Borges in The New York Times
An interview with Borges in The New York Times in 1971. In it, the author explains that, among other things, being a widely beloved intellectual means you don't have to pay cab fare.

Many Worlds
Check out this article and timeline from Nova about the "many worlds" theory of quantum mechanics. Borges' "The Garden of Forking Paths" pops up in the timeline.


"Hey, Yu!"
A YouTube search for amateur productions of "The Garden of Forking Paths" turned up this one, in which Kent Thalman and a crew of dedicated young actors create their funny and fast-paced interpretation of Borges' short story. We hope it inspires you to make your own.

The Mirror Man
A 2007 documentary about Jorge Luis Borges by director Philippe Molins.


Borges Does Tango
Borges wasn't just an essayist and fiction writer – he was also, evidently, a lyricist. In the 1960s Borges collaborated with legendary tango composer Astor Piazzolla to create a series of tangos. Their work was rerecorded and released as an album in 1994. Argentine singer Valeria Munarriz covers several of these tangos, as well as others inspired by Borges. You can listen to the whole album here.

How about a little Borges pop?
PopCanon, a band based in Gainesville, Florida, composed the song "Labyrinths" in tribute to Borges. You can read the quirky lyrics here.

The Riddle of Poetry
Borges delivers a lecture at Harvard in 1967.

A 1999 clip from All Things Considered remembering Borges on the centennial of his birth.


The Author at 22
Borges looking like a scrawny college kid.

The Librarian in Action
Borges was a librarian (actually, he was the director) in the National Library of Argentina.


The New Media Reader
A text published by MIT that investigates the cultural implications of the digital age. Jorge Luis Borges' "The Garden of Forking Paths" is the first story in the collection.

"Second Chance"
Maybe you're thinking you'd like to try your hand at some creative fiction based on the metaphysical ideas in "The Garden of Forking Paths." In case you're looking for further inspiration, here's a very short story by Israeli author Etgar Keret that operates along the same idea as Borges'. It's called "Second Chance."