Study Guide

Hamlet

By William Shakespeare

Hamlet Introduction

If extraterrestrials were to visit Planet Earth, we'd probably put a copy of Hamlet in their welcome basket. It's that good. Well over 400 years after William Shakespeare wrote the play between 1599 and 1601, readers and audiences are still connecting with it.

Shakespeare was a groundbreaking pioneer in his time and wrote plays that were totally different from anything the world had ever seen before. He explored the human spirit and what happens when it is challenged. He also tested the limits of language, inventing new words and phrases. (You want an example? How about: "eaten out of house and home" or "one fell swoop.") 

Hamlet, in particular, has a lot of "most famous" things in it: it's Shakespeare's most famous play about Shakespeare's most famous character (that would be Hamlet), and it contains Shakespeare's most famous line: "To be or not to be, that is the question" (3.1.64).

The play tells the story of Prince Hamlet. But Hamlet's no party-boy prince. When the action begins, we discover that his dad (the King of Denmark) has been murdered by his own brother and Hamlet's uncle, Claudius. Ouch. Talk about sibling rivalry. And it gets worse: not too long after the murder, Claudius married Hamlet's mom, Gertrude. So, what's a prince to do?

If you're Hamlet, not much of anything. He's got a big to-do list (and only five acts to complete it), but he just can't figure out how to get himself moving. Honestly, we understand. It's hard enough to make it through our to-do list, and our biggest item is "Laundry." In comparison, Hamlet's to-do list is epic. For starters, there are the obvious things: hang out with Dad's ghost, feign madness, dump girlfriend, accuse Mom of treachery, plot the convoluted details of your elaborate revenge. Then, of course, there's the big item: kill Uncle/Stepdad/King.

Whew. No wonder he drags his feet.

Hamlet is such a complex character that playing him is the actor equivalent of going to the Olympics. Check out the super-famous roster:

Shakespeare didn't come up with this story all on his lonesome. (Don't call the plagiarism brigade just yet: most of Shakespeare's plots are borrowed, and people in the 16th century didn't think about "originality" in the same way we do.) The story of Hamlet dates back to at least the 9th century. It centers on "Amleth" (sound familiar?), a young man who fakes being crazy in order avenge his father's murder. Saxo the Grammarian included the tale in a 12th century text and later, François de Belleforest translated the story from Latin into French in Histoires Tragiques (1570), which is where Shakespeare may have found it.

The story didn't end with Shakespeare, either. Other people followed in Shakespeare's footsteps and further adapted the story, including legendary Japanese filmmaker Akira Kurosawa (in The Bad Sleep Well), Disney (in The Lion King), The Simpsons, and tons of English students on YouTube. And who knows? Maybe your adaptation will be next.

What is Hamlet About and Why Should I Care?

Hamlet is having a teenage crisis. Okay, so he doesn't dye his hair and plaster pictures of Fall Out Boy all over his walls, but he does start wearing all black and talking to himself a lot—the 16th century equivalent of keeping a video diary. He's got a crush on a girl who might be cheating on him; he doesn't like the guy his mom remarried; and he feels a lot of pressure to live up to his dad's expectations.

In other words, Hamlet is just like us. Sure, he's got bigger problems. (And ghosts.) But his mysterious inner life, his roller coaster of emotions, his struggle to figure out what to do with his life, his conflicted feelings about his parents—this is the stuff that every coming-of-age novel (and movie) is made of.

If you want the scholarly version, we can say that you should care about Hamlet because it just might mark the beginning of a new kind of literature that focuses on the struggles and conflicts within a single individual, rather than on the external conflicts between individuals. Or we can make it even simpler, and say that Hamlet just might be Western literature's first modern man—or modern teenager. 



Hamlet Resources

Websites

Hamlets All the Way Down
Back to the source: here's the 12th century account of Amleth, Prince of Denmark.

All the Bard You Want
And possibly more. The BBC has a slew of Shakespeare resources.

We Won't Tell
Need a little line-by-line help? Check out this funny modern adaptation at Hamlet for the Shakespeare-Impaired.

Get on Stage
The folks at This is Hamlet break it down, talk-show style.

Compare and Contrast
Check out this list of actors performing the "To be or not to be" soliloquy. Which version do you like best?

Movie or TV Productions

Black and White and Bloody All Over
Laurence Olivier's 1948 adaptation.

Well, I Remember Mel Gibson Accurately
Glenn Close and Mel Gibson take on Denmark in 1990.

Co-Credited
It doesn't get classier than Kenneth Branagh (1996).

Denmark Corporation
In this 2000 adaptation with Ethan Hawke, Denmark is a NYC-based corporation.

Dr. Seuss-style, in 1995.

Green Eggs and Hamlet
Dr. Seuss-style, in 1995.

Articles

The Dark Knight
This article in The Guardian asks if Batman is a Hamlet for our time. Pretty cool!

Still a Mystery
People have been trying to figure out Hamlet since at least the beginning of the nineteenth century—like famous essayist William Hazlitt.

Mo' Money, Mo' Problems
T.S. Eliot takes on the problem of Hamlet in The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism.

Stages of Grief
For a modern take on Hamlet, here's Meghan O'Rourke arguing that Hamlet's not depressed—he's grieving.

Video

Doctor Who/ Jean-Luc Picard
The entire 2008 Royal Shakespeare Company production of Hamlet, with David Tennant and Patrick Stewart. Well, we know what we're doing tonight.

Dude Looks Like a Lady
Sarah Bernhardt in her fencing scene. Filmed in 1899!

Audio

Method or Madness?
In this NPR segment, Hamlet goes on trial.

Liberation!
The entire audiobook of Hamlet—free. Results may vary.

Images

Flowers and All
John Everett Millais painted Ophelia in 1851-52.

Well, He Does Call Himself a Woman
Here's Sarah Bernhardt playing Hamlet, sometime between 1885 and 1900.