Most of these dwarves just seem to be along for the ride, without much in the way of real character. Oin and Gloin carry the tinderboxes for the group, so occasionally they're called upon to bring light in dark places. Dori is the dwarf who happens to be carrying Bilbo in the goblin tunnels when he gets struck from behind and drops Bilbo into the dark. Dwalin is the dwarf who complains that Bilbo isn't doing enough to open the side door in Chapter 11. And Bofur and Bombur are the two dwarves who almost get snacked on by Smaug when he flies out of the Lonely Mountain and tears up the hillside in rage for his lost golden cup.
But other than these tiny details, the dwarves as a group are not too distinctive. Thorin and Bilbo can't go to the Lonely Mountain alone, so they need some extras to flesh out their numbers.