Study Guide

Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Quotes

  • Curiosity

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Enfield

    "No, sir: I had a delicacy," was the reply. "I feel very strongly about putting questions; it partakes too much of the style of the day of judgment. You start a question, and it's like starting a stone. You sit quietly on the top of a hill; and away the stone goes, starting others; and presently some bland old bird (the last you would have thought of) is knocked on the head in his own back garden and the family have to change their name. No sir, I make it a rule of mine: the more it looks like Queer Street, the less I ask." (1.14)

    Mr. Enfield differs from Mr. Utterson in terms of their respective curiosity.

    But there was one curious circumstance. I had taken a loathing to my gentleman at first sight. So had the child's family, which was only natural. But the doctor's case was what struck me. He was the usual cut and dry apothecary, of no particular age and colour, with a strong Edinburgh accent and about as emotional as a bagpipe. Well, sir, he was like the rest of us; every time he looked at my prisoner, I saw that Sawbones turn sick and white with desire to kill him. (1.8)

    Despite Mr. Enfield’s self-professed lack of curiosity, he has an eye for picking out a "curious circumstance."

    Chapter 2
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    And still the figure had no face by which he might know it; even in his dreams, it had no face, or one that baffled him and melted before his eyes; and thus it was that there sprang up and grew apace in the lawyer's mind a singularly strong, almost an inordinate, curiosity to behold the features of the real Mr. Hyde. If he could but once set eyes on him, he thought the mystery would lighten and perhaps roll altogether away, as was the habit of mysterious things when well examined. (2.13)

    Mr. Utterson is a curious person, but also very rational and not disposed toward supernatural explanations. He believes that mysteries can be solved by thorough inquiry.

    From that time forward, Mr. Utterson began to haunt the door in the by-street of shops. In the morning before office hours, at noon when business was plenty, and time scarce, at night under the face of the fogged city moon, by all lights and at all hours of solitude or concourse, the lawyer was to be found on his chosen post. (2.14)

    Mr. Utterson is a man who acts on his curiosity, unlike Mr. Enfield.

    Chapter 6
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    It is one thing to mortify curiosity, another to conquer it; and it may be doubted if, from that day forth, Utterson desired the society of his surviving friend with the same eagerness. He thought of him kindly; but his thoughts were disquieted and fearful. He went to call indeed; but he was perhaps relieved to be denied admittance; perhaps, in his heart, he preferred to speak with Poole upon the doorstep and surrounded by the air and sounds of the open city, rather than to be admitted into that house of voluntary bondage, and to sit and speak with its inscrutable recluse. Poole had, indeed, no very pleasant news to communicate.

    The doctor, it appeared, now more than ever confined himself to the cabinet over the laboratory, where he would sometimes even sleep; he was out of spirits, he had grown very silent, he did not read; it seemed as if he had something on his mind. Utterson became so used to the unvarying character of these reports, that he fell off little by little in the frequency of his visits. (6.13-14)

    Mr. Utterson’s curiosity allows his imagination to overpower his usually unquestioning belief in Dr. Jekyll’s good character.

    A great curiosity came on the trustee, to disregard the prohibition and dive at once to the bottom of these mysteries; but professional honour and faith to his dead friend were stringent obligations; and the packet slept in the inmost corner of his private safe. (6.12)

    Mr. Utterson’s moral code supersedes any stirrings of curiosity.

    Chapter 9
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    "And now," said he, "to settle what remains. Will you be wise? will you be guided? will you suffer me to take this glass in my hand and to go forth from your house without further parley? Or has the greed of curiosity too much command of you?" (9.28)

    By asking if curiosity or prudence will win out, Mr. Hyde is taunting Dr. Lanyon.

    Dr. Hastie Lanyon

    Upon the reading of this letter, I made sure my colleague was insane; but till that was proved beyond the possibility of doubt, I felt bound to do as he requested. The less I understood of this farrago, the less I was in a position to judge of its importance; and an appeal so worded could not be set aside without a grave responsibility. (9.10)

    Dr. Lanyon cooperated with the letter’s requests more out of curiosity than out of loyalty to his friend.

    But here I took pity on my visitor's suspense, and some perhaps on my own growing curiosity. (9.21)

    As one might expect from a man of science, Dr. Lanyon has an active curiosity.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    But the temptation of a discovery so singular and profound at last overcame the suggestions of alarm. I had long since prepared my tincture; I purchased at once, from a firm of wholesale chemists, a large quantity of a particular salt which I knew, from my experiments, to be the last ingredient required; and late one accursed night, I compounded the elements, watched them boil and smoke together in the glass, and when the ebullition had subsided, with a strong glow of courage, drank off the potion. (10.3)

    After creating the potion, Dr. Jekyll is much too curious not to drink it.

  • Lies and Deceit

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    It is the mark of a modest man to accept his friendly circle ready-made from the hands of opportunity; and that was the lawyer's way. His friends were those of his own blood or those whom he had known the longest; his affections, like ivy, were the growth of time, they implied no aptness in the object. Hence, no doubt the bond that united him to Mr. Richard Enfield, his distant kinsman, the well-known man about town. It was a nut to crack for many, what these two could see in each other, or what subject they could find in common. It was reported by those who encountered them in their Sunday walks, that they said nothing, looked singularly dull and would hail with obvious relief the appearance of a friend. For all that, the two men put the greatest store by these excursions, counted them the chief jewel of each week, and not only set aside occasions of pleasure, but even resisted the calls of business, that they might enjoy them uninterrupted. (1.2)

    Stevenson fails to reveal the attraction of these weekly walks; we are left at somewhat of a loss to understand the ritual.

    Chapter 2
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    This document had long been the lawyer's eyesore. It offended him both as a lawyer and as a lover of the sane and customary sides of life, to whom the fanciful was the immodest. And hitherto it was his ignorance of Mr. Hyde that had swelled his indignation; now, by a sudden turn, it was his knowledge. It was already bad enough when the name was but a name of which he could learn no more. It was worse when it began to be clothed upon with detestable attributes; and out of the shifting, insubstantial mists that had so long baffled his eye, there leaped up the sudden, definite presentment of a fiend. (2.1)

    For Mr. Utterson, ignorance is not as bad as the sudden knowledge that Mr. Hyde is an evil man.

    "We had," was the reply. "But it is more than ten years since Henry Jekyll became too fanciful for me. He began to go wrong, wrong in mind; and though of course I continue to take an interest in him for old sake's sake, as they say, I see and I have seen devilish little of the man. Such unscientific balderdash," added the doctor, flushing suddenly purple, "would have estranged Damon and Pythias." (2.9)

    Dr. Jekyll hides information even from his lawyer.

    Chapter 4
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    This last, however, was not so easy of accomplishment; for Mr. Hyde had numbered few familiars—even the master of the servant maid had only seen him twice; his family could nowhere be traced; he had never been photographed; and the few who could describe him differed widely, as common observers will. Only on one point were they agreed; and that was the haunting sense of unexpressed deformity with which the fugitive impressed his beholders. (4.18)

    Observers constantly note that Mr. Hyde has an indescribable deformity; the lack of detail lets readers imagine all sorts of terrible facial features.

    Chapter 9
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    "Sir," said I, affecting a coolness that I was far from truly possessing, "you speak enigmas, and you will perhaps not wonder that I hear you with no very strong impression of belief. But I have gone too far in the way of inexplicable services to pause before I see the end." (9.29)

    Although Dr. Jekyll asked Dr. Lanyon for a large favor, he did so without revealing the reasons behind the request.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    I resolved in my future conduct to redeem the past; and I can say with honesty that my resolve was fruitful of some good. You know yourself how earnestly, in the last months of the last year, I laboured to relieve suffering; you know that much was done for others, and that the days passed quietly, almost happily for myself. (10.21)

    Just as we are ignorant of the exact nature of Mr. Hyde’s evilness, we are ignorant of the exact nature of Dr. Jekyll’s good, allowing the two ideas to be kept abstract and universal.

    The pleasures which I made haste to seek in my disguise were, as I have said, undignified; I would scarce use a harder term. But in the hands of Edward Hyde, they soon began to turn toward the monstrous. When I would come back from these excursions, I was often plunged into a kind of wonder at my vicarious depravity. This familiar that I called out of my own soul, and sent forth alone to do his good pleasure, was a being inherently malign and villainous; his every act and thought centered on self; drinking pleasure with bestial avidity from any degree of torture to another; relentless like a man of stone. Henry Jekyll stood at times aghast before the acts of Edward Hyde; but the situation was apart from ordinary laws, and insidiously relaxed the grasp of conscience. (10.11)

    Stevenson allows us to imagine Mr. Hyde participating in just about every act of evil cruelty there is. What our imaginations create is surely worse than any list the author could provide for us.

    Not that I dreamed of resuscitating Hyde; the bare idea of that would startle me to frenzy: no, it was in my own person that I was once more tempted to trifle with my conscience; and it was as an ordinary secret sinner that I at last fell before the assaults of temptation. (10.21)

    Dr. Jekyll fails to enlighten us as to the exact nature of his sin.

    For two good reasons, I will not enter deeply into this scientific branch of my confession. First, because I have been made to learn that the doom and burthen of our life is bound for ever on man's shoulders, and when the attempt is made to cast it off, it but returns upon us with more unfamiliar and more awful pressure. Second, because, as my narrative will make, alas! too evident, my discoveries were incomplete. Enough then, that I not only recognised my natural body from the mere aura and effulgence of certain of the powers that made up my spirit, but managed to compound a drug by which these powers should be dethroned from their supremacy, and a second form and countenance substituted, none the less natural to me because they were the expression, and bore the stamp of lower elements in my soul. (10.2)

    Stevenson understandably omits the details of Jekyll’s scientific process, again allowing our imaginations to do the work.

  • Women and Femininity

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Enfield

    All at once, I saw two figures: one a little man who was stumping along eastward at a good walk, and the other a girl of maybe eight or ten who was running as hard as she was able down a cross street. Well, sir, the two ran into one another naturally enough at the corner; and then came the horrible part of the thing; for the man trampled calmly over the child's body and left her screaming on the ground. It sounds nothing to hear, but it was hellish to see… I gave a few halloa, took to my heels, collared my gentleman, and brought him back to where there was already quite a group about the screaming child… The people who had turned out were the girl's own family; and pretty soon, the doctor, for whom she had been sent put in his appearance. Well, the child was not much the worse, more frightened, according to the Sawbones; and there you might have supposed would be an end to it. (1.8)

    The little girl, the first female we hear about, is rudely trampled, and although she comes to no great harm, she relies on other people for her defense.

    Chapter 4

    And next moment, with ape-like fury, he was trampling his victim under foot and hailing down a storm of blows, under which the bones were audibly shattered and the body jumped upon the roadway. At the horror of these sights and sounds, the maid fainted.

    It was two o'clock when she came to herself and called for the police. The murderer was gone long ago; but there lay his victim in the middle of the lane, incredibly mangled. (4.1)

    The maid faints after witnessing a horrible crime. She regains consciousness only once it is too late to apprehend the murderer.

    A maid servant living alone in a house not far from the river, had gone upstairs to bed about eleven. Although a fog rolled over the city in the small hours, the early part of the night was cloudless, and the lane, which the maid's window overlooked, was brilliantly lit by the full moon. It seems she was romantically given, for she sat down upon her box, which stood immediately under the window, and fell into a dream of musing. Never (she used to say, with streaming tears, when she narrated that experience), never had she felt more at peace with all men or thought more kindly of the world. (4.1)

    The maid is an idealist who is portrayed as a one-dimensional character.

    Chapter 8

    Blank silence followed, no one protesting; only the maid lifted her voice and now wept loudly.

    "Hold your tongue!" Poole said to her, with a ferocity of accent that testified to his own jangled nerves; and indeed, when the girl had so suddenly raised the note of her lamentation, they had all started and turned towards the inner door with faces of dreadful expectation. (8.22)

    In giving voice to her fear, the maid jeopardizes everyone’s safety.

    At the sight of Mr. Utterson, the housemaid broke into hysterical whimpering; and the cook, crying out "Bless God! it's Mr. Utterson," ran forward as if to take him in her arms. (8.19)

    Although many characters are shocked and scared throughout the novel, it is the female characters who are in "hysterics."

  • Repression

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    He was austere with himself; drank gin when he was alone, to mortify a taste for vintages; and though he enjoyed the theater, had not crossed the doors of one for twenty years. But he had an approved tolerance for others; sometimes wondering, almost with envy, at the high pressure of spirits involved in their misdeeds; and in any extremity inclined to help rather than to reprove. (1.1)

    Although Mr. Utterson leads a very severe, routine life, he is envious of others’ transgressions.

    Mr. Enfield

    Mr. Utterson sighed deeply but said never a word; and the young man presently resumed. "Here is another lesson to say nothing," said he. "I am ashamed of my long tongue. Let us make a bargain never to refer to this again."

    "With all my heart," said the lawyer. I shake hands on that, Richard." (1.27)

    In keeping with their social code, Mr. Utterson and Mr. Enfield agree essentially not to gossip anymore.

    "No, sir: I had a delicacy," was the reply. "I feel very strongly about putting questions; it partakes too much of the style of the day of judgment. You start a question, and it's like starting a stone. You sit quietly on the top of a hill; and away the stone goes, starting others; and presently some bland old bird (the last you would have thought of) is knocked on the head in his own back garden and the family have to change their name. No sir, I make it a rule of mine: the more it looks like Queer Street, the less I ask."

    "A very good rule, too," said the lawyer.

    "But I have studied the place for myself," continued Mr. Enfield. "It seems scarcely a house. There is no other door, and nobody goes in or out of that one but, once in a great while, the gentleman of my adventure. There are three windows looking on the court on the first floor; none below; the windows are always shut but they're clean. And then there is a chimney which is generally smoking; so somebody must live there. And yet it's not so sure; for the buildings are so packed together about the court, that it's hard to say where one ends and another begins." (1.14)

    Mr. Enfield actually is an inquisitive man, but he represses that aspect of his character because he thinks it is dangerous.

    Chapter 3

    Hosts loved to detain the dry lawyer, when the light-hearted and loose-tongued had already their foot on the threshold; they liked to sit a while in his unobtrusive company, practising for solitude, sobering their minds in the man's rich silence after the expense and strain of gaiety. (3.1)

    Mr. Utterson’s presence acts as a damper on excitement and fun; he recalls people to Victorian standards.

    Chapter 6
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    A great curiosity came on the trustee, to disregard the prohibition and dive at once to the bottom of these mysteries; but professional honour and faith to his dead friend were stringent obligations; and the packet slept in the inmost corner of his private safe. (6.12)

    Mr. Utterson represses great curiosity in the name of professionalism and friendship.

    Chapter 9
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    "I beg your pardon, Dr. Lanyon," he replied civilly enough. "What you say is very well founded; and my impatience has shown its heels to my politeness. I come here at the instance of your colleague, Dr. Henry Jekyll, on a piece of business of some moment; and I understood ..." He paused and put his hand to his throat, and I could see, in spite of his collected manner, that he was wrestling against the approaches of the hysteria—"I understood, a drawer ..." (9.20)

    Mr. Hyde is capable of repressing his emotions and impatience in order to achieve his objectives.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    At that time my virtue slumbered; my evil, kept and innocent life; I think instead that I daily enjoyed it more completely; but I was still cursed with my duality of purpose; and as the first edge of my penitence wore off, the lower side of me, so long indulged, so recently chained down, began to growl for licence. Not that I dreamed of resuscitating Hyde; the bare idea of that would startle me to frenzy: no, it was in my own person that I was once more tempted to trifle with my conscience; and it was as an ordinary secret sinner that I at last fell before the assaults of temptation. (10.21)

    Refusing to take on the persona of Mr. Hyde does not exempt Dr. Jekyll from participating in sin.

    And indeed the worst of my faults was a certain impatient gaiety of disposition, such as has made the happiness of many, but such as I found it hard to reconcile with my imperious desire to carry my head high, and wear a more than commonly grave countenance before the public. Hence it came about that I concealed my pleasures; and that when I reached years of reflection, and began to look round me and take stock of my progress and position in the world, I stood already committed to a profound duplicity of me. Many a man would have even blazoned such irregularities as I was guilty of; but from the high views that I had set before me, I regarded and hid them with an almost morbid sense of shame. (10.1)

    Dr. Jekyll kept the pleasurable, sinful side of his personality well hidden—i.e., repressed—in favor of appearing to be a somber man who frowns on exuberant behavior.

    At that time my virtue slumbered; my evil, kept awake by ambition, was alert and swift to seize the occasion; and the thing that was projected was Edward Hyde. (10.8)

    For Jekyll, repressing his evil side simply renders it more ambitious and alert.

    The pleasures which I made haste to seek in my disguise were, as I have said, undignified; I would scarce use a harder term. But in the hands of Edward Hyde, they soon began to turn toward the monstrous. When I would come back from these excursions, I was often plunged into a kind of wonder at my vicarious depravity. This familiar that I called out of my own soul, and sent forth alone to do his good pleasure, was a being inherently malign and villainous; his every act and thought centered on self; drinking pleasure with bestial avidity from any degree of torture to another; relentless like a man of stone. Henry Jekyll stood at times aghast before the acts of Edward Hyde; but the situation was apart from ordinary laws, and insidiously relaxed the grasp of conscience. It was Hyde, after all, and Hyde alone, that was guilty. Jekyll was no worse; he woke again to his good qualities seemingly unimpaired; he would even make haste, where it was possible, to undo the evil done by Hyde. And thus his conscience slumbered. (10.11)

    Dr. Jekyll represses any ticklings of his conscience.

    But time began at last to obliterate the freshness of my alarm; the praises of conscience began to grow into a thing of course; I began to be tortured with throes and longings, as of Hyde struggling after freedom; and at last, in an hour of moral weakness, I once again compounded and swallowed the transforming draught… My devil had been long caged, he came out roaring. (10.17)

    Repressing Mr. Hyde merely makes him stronger and angrier when he is finally released.

    For two good reasons, I will not enter deeply into this scientific branch of my confession. First, because I have been made to learn that the doom and burthen of our life is bound for ever on man's shoulders, and when the attempt is made to cast it off, it but returns upon us with more unfamiliar and more awful pressure. (10.2)

    Dr. Jekyll believes that repression yields consequences worse than Hyde’s actions.

  • Appearances

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    Mr. Utterson the lawyer was a man of a rugged countenance that was never lighted by a smile; cold, scanty and embarrassed in discourse; backward in sentiment; lean, long, dusty, dreary and yet somehow lovable. (1.1)

    Mr. Utterson’s outward appearance belies a lovable, kind, and loyal interior. He is the one character whose appearance is not entirely indicative of his true self.

    It is the mark of a modest man to accept his friendly circle ready-made from the hands of opportunity; and that was the lawyer's way. His friends were those of his own blood or those whom he had known the longest; his affections, like ivy, were the growth of time, they implied no aptness in the object. Hence, no doubt the bond that united him to Mr. Richard Enfield, his distant kinsman, the well-known man about town. It was a nut to crack for many, what these two could see in each other, or what subject they could find in common. It was reported by those who encountered them in their Sunday walks, that they said nothing, looked singularly dull and would hail with obvious relief the appearance of a friend. For all that, the two men put the greatest store by these excursions, counted them the chief jewel of each week, and not only set aside occasions of pleasure, but even resisted the calls of business, that they might enjoy them uninterrupted. (1.2)

    Here appearances belie reality: the two men don’t appear to particularly enjoy these weekly walks, yet it’s clear that they highly value their strolls together.

    Mr. Enfield

    Two doors from one corner, on the left hand going east the line was broken by the entry of a court; and just at that point a certain sinister block of building thrust forward its gable on the street. It was two storeys high; showed no window, nothing but a door on the lower storey and a blind forehead of discoloured wall on the upper; and bore in every feature, the marks of prolonged and sordid negligence. The door, which was equipped with neither bell nor knocker, was blistered and distained. Tramps slouched into the recess and struck matches on the panels; children kept shop upon the steps; the schoolboy had tried his knife on the mouldings; and for close on a generation, no one had appeared to drive away these random visitors or to repair their ravages.

    Mr. Enfield and the lawyer were on the other side of the by-street; but when they came abreast of the entry, the former lifted up his cane and pointed.

    "Did you ever remark that door?" he asked; and when his companion had replied in the affirmative. "It is connected in my mind," added he, "with a very odd story." (1.4)

    Mr. Hyde’s stomping grounds, and the site of Mr. Enfield’s "old story," is not well-kept or respectable. The appearances of buildings reflect the activities inside them.

    Chapter 2
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    Round the corner from the by-street, there was a square of ancient, handsome houses, now for the most part decayed from their high estate and let in flats and chambers to all sorts and conditions of men; map-engravers, architects, shady lawyers and the agents of obscure enterprises. One house, however, second from the corner, was still occupied entire; and at the door of this, which wore a great air of wealth and comfort, though it was now plunged in darkness except for the fanlight, Mr. Utterson stopped and knocked. (2.38)

    Dr. Jekyll’s house is well-appointed and comfortable. Again, this reflects the generally respectable happenings inside the house.

    Chapter 4
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    As the cab drew up before the address indicated, the fog lifted a little and showed him a dingy street, a gin palace, a low French eating house, a shop for the retail of penny numbers and twopenny salads, many ragged children huddled in the doorways, and many women of many different nationalities passing out, key in hand, to have a morning glass; and the next moment the fog settled down again upon that part, as brown as umber, and cut him off from his blackguardly surroundings. This was the home of Henry Jekyll's favourite; of a man who was heir to a quarter of a million sterling. (4.11)

    Mr. Utterson is incredulous that the "heir to a quarter of a million sterling" would live in such an obviously shabby (and shady) neighborhood.

    Chapter 5
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    It was the first time that the lawyer had been received in that part of his friend's quarters; and he eyed the dingy, windowless structure with curiosity, and gazed round with a distasteful sense of strangeness as he crossed the theatre, once crowded with eager students and now lying gaunt and silent, the tables laden with chemical apparatus, the floor strewn with crates and littered with packing straw, and the light falling dimly through the foggy cupola. (5.1)

    While Dr. Jekyll inhabits a large, comfortable house, Mr. Hyde spends most of his time in the laboratory—"a dingy windowless structure." Buildings reflect what goes on inside.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    I knew myself, at the first breath of this new life, to be more wicked, tenfold more wicked, sold a slave to my original evil; and the thought, in that moment, braced and delighted me like wine. I stretched out my hands, exulting in the freshness of these sensations; and in the act, I was suddenly aware that I had lost in stature. (10.4)

    When Jekyll says he has "lost in stature," it is a pun. The phrase has two meanings: one, that he’s physically shorter; and two, that he’s not a nice, respectable man anymore.

    And indeed the worst of my faults was a certain impatient gaiety of disposition, such as has made the happiness of many, but such as I found it hard to reconcile with my imperious desire to carry my head high, and wear a more than commonly grave countenance before the public. Hence it came about that I concealed my pleasures; and that when I reached years of reflection, and began to look round me and take stock of my progress and position in the world, I stood already committed to a profound duplicity of me. (10.1)

    Dr. Jekyll admits that his worst predisposition is toward a little too much happiness or "gaiety," but he opts to suppress that character trait in order to keep up the appearance of a very somber man.

    I must here speak by theory alone, saying not that which I know, but that which I suppose to be most probable. The evil side of my nature, to which I had now transferred the stamping efficacy, was less robust and less developed than the good which I had just deposed. Again, in the course of my life, which had been, after all, nine tenths a life of effort, virtue and control, it had been much less exercised and much less exhausted. And hence, as I think, it came about that Edward Hyde was so much smaller, slighter and younger than Henry Jekyll. Even as good shone upon the countenance of the one, evil was written broadly and plainly on the face of the other. Evil besides (which I must still believe to be the lethal side of man) had left on that body an imprint of deformity and decay. And yet when I looked upon that ugly idol in the glass, I was conscious of no repugnance, rather of a leap of welcome. This, too, was myself. It seemed natural and human. In my eyes it bore a livelier image of the spirit, it seemed more express and single, than the imperfect and divided countenance I had been hitherto accustomed to call mine. And in so far I was doubtless right. I have observed that when I wore the semblance of Edward Hyde, none could come near to me at first without a visible misgiving of the flesh. This, as I take it, was because all human beings, as we meet them, are commingled out of good and evil: and Edward Hyde, alone in the ranks of mankind, was pure evil. (10.6)

    Dr. Jekyll argues that Mr. Hyde is the perfect physical embodiment of the evil in his (Dr. Jekyll’s) character. In other words, Mr. Hyde looks evil.

  • Friendship

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    "We told the man we could and would make such a scandal out of this as should make his name stink from one end of London to the other. If he had any friends or any credit, we undertook that he should lose them." (1.8)

    The loss of friendship is a serious threat in Victorian society.

    But he had an approved tolerance for others; sometimes wondering, almost with envy, at the high pressure of spirits involved in their misdeeds; and in any extremity inclined to help rather than to reprove. "I incline to Cain's heresy," he used to say quaintly: "I let my brother go to the devil in his own way." In this character, it was frequently his fortune to be the last reputable acquaintance and the last good influence in the lives of downgoing men. (1.1)

    Mr. Utterson is a steadfast friend, even when his friends are social outcasts or criminals.

    Chapter 2
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    At sight of Mr. Utterson, he sprang up from his chair and welcomed him with both hands. The geniality, as was the way of the man, was somewhat theatrical to the eye; but it reposed on genuine feeling. For these two were old friends, old mates both at school and college, both thorough respecters of themselves and of each other, and what does not always follow, men who thoroughly enjoyed each other's company. (2.4)

    Dr. Lanyon and Mr. Utterson have a strong friendship.

    And the lawyer, scared by the thought, brooded awhile on his own past, groping in all the corners of memory, least by chance some Jack-in-the-Box of an old iniquity should leap to light there. (2.50)

    His friend’s hypothetical situation prompts Mr. Utterson to examine whether he might have traveled down a similar path.

    Or else he would see a room in a rich house, where his friend lay asleep, dreaming and smiling at his dreams; and then the door of that room would be opened, the curtains of the bed plucked apart, the sleeper recalled, and lo! there would stand by his side a figure to whom power was given, and even at that dead hour, he must rise and do its bidding. (2.13)

    Rather than believe that Dr. Jekyll is in fact friends with Mr. Hyde, Mr. Utterson’s first conclusion is that Mr. Hyde has some sort of control over Dr. Jekyll. This interpretation is most likely colored by their friendship.

    He gave his friend a few seconds to recover his composure, and then approached the question he had come to put. (2.10)

    Mr. Utterson is considerate, but never abandons his objectives.

    Dr. Hastie Lanyon

    "We had," was the reply. "But it is more than ten years since Henry Jekyll became too fanciful for me. He began to go wrong, wrong in mind; and though of course I continue to take an interest in him for old sake's sake, as they say, I see and I have seen devilish little of the man. Such unscientific balderdash," added the doctor, flushing suddenly purple, "would have estranged Damon and Pythias." (2.9)

    Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll are estranged because they disagree over science. This suggests an initial frailty to their friendship in contrast to the strength of Lanyon and Utterson’s relationship.

    Chapter 3
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    "Jekyll," said Utterson, "you know me: I am a man to be trusted. Make a clean breast of this in confidence; and I make no doubt I can get you out of it."

    "My good Utterson," said the doctor, "this is very good of you, this is downright good of you, and I cannot find words to thank you in. I believe you fully; I would trust you before any man alive, ay, before myself, if I could make the choice; but indeed it isn't what you fancy; it is not as bad as that; and just to put your good heart at rest, I will tell you one thing: the moment I choose, I can be rid of Mr. Hyde. I give you my hand upon that; and I thank you again and again; and I will just add one little word, Utterson, that I'm sure you'll take in good part: this is a private matter, and I beg of you to let it sleep." (3.10)

    Mr. Utterson offers his unconditional help to Dr. Jekyll; Dr. Jekyll says he trusts Mr. Utterson unequivocally, but refuses the offer.

    A close observer might have gathered that the topic was distasteful; but the doctor carried it off gaily. "My poor Utterson," said he, "you are unfortunate in such a client. I never saw a man so distressed as you were by my will; unless it were that hide-bound pedant, Lanyon, at what he called my scientific heresies. O, I know he's a good fellow—you needn't frown—an excellent fellow, and I always mean to see more of him; but a hide-bound pedant for all that; an ignorant, blatant pedant. I was never more disappointed in any man than Lanyon."

    "You know I never approved of it," pursued Utterson, ruthlessly disregarding the fresh topic.

    "My will? Yes, certainly, I know that," said the doctor, a trifle sharply. "You have told me so." (3.3)

    Mr. Utterson will not back down if he believes he is acting in his friend’s best interests.

    A fortnight later, by excellent good fortune, the doctor gave one of his pleasant dinners to some five or six old cronies, all intelligent, reputable men and all judges of good wine; and Mr. Utterson so contrived that he remained behind after the others had departed. This was no new arrangement, but a thing that had befallen many scores of times. (3.1)

    Dr. Jekyll is friends with only men of good standing, intelligence, and solid judgment of wine. He seems to have assimilated Victorian standards.

    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    To this rule, Dr. Jekyll was no exception; and as he now sat on the opposite side of the fire—a large, well-made, smooth-faced man of fifty, with something of a slyish cast perhaps, but every mark of capacity and kindness—you could see by his looks that he cherished for Mr. Utterson a sincere and warm affection. (3.1)

    Dr. Jekyll has warm feelings of friendship for Mr. Utterson.

    Chapter 4
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    A purse and gold watch were found upon the victim: but no cards or papers, except a sealed and stamped envelope, which he had been probably carrying to the post, and which bore the name and address of Mr. Utterson.

    This was brought to the lawyer the next morning, before he was out of bed; and he had no sooner seen it and been told the circumstances, than he shot out a solemn lip. (4.2)

    Mr. Utterson’s friendships help him obtain crucial information regarding the mysterious Jekyll/Hyde connection. This is how friendship drives the plot forward.

    This last, however, was not so easy of accomplishment; for Mr. Hyde had numbered few familiars—even the master of the servant maid had only seen him twice; his family could nowhere be traced; he had never been photographed; and the few who could describe him differed widely, as common observers will. Only on one point were they agreed; and that was the haunting sense of unexpressed deformity with which the fugitive impressed his beholders. (4.18)

    In other words, Mr. Hyde doesn’t have any friends. His isolation is a consequence of his evil nature.

    Chapter 5
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    The newsboys, as he went, were crying themselves hoarse along the footways: "Special edition. Shocking murder of an M.P." That was the funeral oration of one friend and client; and he could not help a certain apprehension lest the good name of another should be sucked down in the eddy of the scandal. It was, at least, a ticklish decision that he had to make; and self-reliant as he was by habit, he began to cherish a longing for advice. (5.21)

    Mr. Utterson does not want the murder of one friend to cause the ruin of another—yet his conscience does prick him regarding Hyde’s letter.

    Chapter 6
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    A week afterwards Dr. Lanyon took to his bed, and in something less than a fortnight he was dead. The night after the funeral, at which he had been sadly affected, Utterson locked the door of his business room, and sitting there by the light of a melancholy candle, drew out and set before him an envelope addressed by the hand and sealed with the seal of his dead friend. "PRIVATE: for the hands of G. J. Utterson ALONE, and in case of his predecease to be destroyed unread," so it was emphatically superscribed; and the lawyer dreaded to behold the contents. "I have buried one friend to-day," he thought: "what if this should cost me another?" And then he condemned the fear as a disloyalty, and broke the seal. (6.12)

    Although Mr. Utterson worries that Dr. Lanyon’s last testament will unforgivably incriminate Dr. Jekyll, he brushes his unease aside.

    A great curiosity came on the trustee, to disregard the prohibition and dive at once to the bottom of these mysteries; but professional honour and faith to his dead friend were stringent obligations; and the packet slept in the inmost corner of his private safe. (6.12)

    For Mr. Utterson, friendship trumps curiosity—even when one friend is in the grave.

    On the 8th of January Utterson had dined at the doctor's with a small party; Lanyon had been there; and the face of the host had looked from one to the other as in the old days when the trio were inseparable friends. On the 12th, and again on the 14th, the door was shut against the lawyer. "The doctor was confined to the house," Poole said, "and saw no one." On the 15th, he tried again, and was again refused; and having now been used for the last two months to see his friend almost daily, he found this return of solitude to weigh upon his spirits. The fifth night he had in Guest to dine with him; and the sixth he betook himself to Dr. Lanyon's. (6.2)

    Mr. Utterson is accustomed to dining with friends, in contrast to the evil and solitary Mr. Hyde.

    It is one thing to mortify curiosity, another to conquer it; and it may be doubted if, from that day forth, Utterson desired the society of his surviving friend with the same eagerness. He thought of him kindly; but his thoughts were disquieted and fearful. He went to call indeed; but he was perhaps relieved to be denied admittance; perhaps, in his heart, he preferred to speak with Poole upon the doorstep and surrounded by the air and sounds of the open city, rather than to be admitted into that house of voluntary bondage, and to sit and speak with its inscrutable recluse. Poole had, indeed, no very pleasant news to communicate.

    The doctor, it appeared, now more than ever confined himself to the cabinet over the laboratory, where he would sometimes even sleep; he was out of spirits, he had grown very silent, he did not read; it seemed as if he had something on his mind. Utterson became so used to the unvarying character of these reports, that he fell off little by little in the frequency of his visits. (6.13)

    Mr. Utterson finally begins to doubt Dr. Jekyll’s good character—and is in fact relieved to be denied admittance into his friend’s house.

    Chapter 8
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    The lawyer put it in his pocket. "I would say nothing of this paper. If your master has fled or is dead, we may at least save his credit." (8.97)

    Mr. Utterson is concerned with saving his friend’s reputation.

    "These are all very strange circumstances," said Mr. Utterson, "but I think I begin to see daylight. Your master, Poole, is plainly seized with one of those maladies that both torture and deform the sufferer; hence, for aught I know, the alteration of his voice; hence the mask and the avoidance of his friends; hence his eagerness to find this drug, by means of which the poor soul retains some hope of ultimate recovery—God grant that he be not deceived! There is my explanation; it is sad enough, Poole, ay, and appalling to consider; but it is plain and natural, hangs well together, and delivers us from all exorbitant alarms." (8.42)

    We’ll go out on a limb and say that this passage may prove that Poole knows Dr. Jekyll better than, or as well as, Mr. Utterson does.

    Poole

    "O, sir," cried Poole, "do you think I do not know my master after twenty years? Do you think I do not know where his head comes to in the cabinet door, where I saw him every morning of my life? No, sir, that thing in the mask was never Dr. Jekyll—God knows what it was, but it was never Dr. Jekyll; and it is the belief of my heart that there was murder done." (8.43)

    Poole’s steadfast loyalty to Dr. Jekyll is borne out of twenty years of being his servant, not out of being his friend.

    Chapter 9
    Dr. Hastie Lanyon

    Upon the reading of this letter, I made sure my colleague was insane; but till that was proved beyond the possibility of doubt, I felt bound to do as he requested. The less I understood of this farrago, the less I was in a position to judge of its importance; and an appeal so worded could not be set aside without a grave responsibility. (9.10)

    Dr. Lanyon complies with the letter’s requests more out of curiosity than out of loyalty to his friend.

    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    "Dear Lanyon,—You are one of my oldest friends; and although we may have differed at times on scientific questions, I cannot remember, at least on my side, any break in our affection. There was never a day when, if you had said to me, 'Jekyll, my life, my honour, my reason, depend upon you,' I would not have sacrificed my left hand to help you. Lanyon my life, my honour, my reason, are all at your mercy; if you fail me to-night, I am lost. You might suppose, after this preface, that I am going to ask you for something dishonourable to grant. Judge for yourself." (9.3)

    Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll actually have a strong friendship—or at least Dr. Jekyll thinks so.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    When I came to myself at Lanyon's, the horror of my old friend perhaps affected me somewhat: I do not know; it was at least but a drop in the sea to the abhorrence with which I looked back upon these hours. A change had come over me. It was no longer the fear of the gallows, it was the horror of being Hyde that racked me. (10.25)

    The disapproval of an old friend has the power to make Dr. Jekyll fear the fate of permanently being Mr. Hyde.

    To cast in my lot with Jekyll, was to die to those appetites which I had long secretly indulged and had of late begun to pamper. To cast it in with Hyde, was to die to a thousand interests and aspirations, and to become, at a blow and forever, despised and friendless. (10.16)

    Even Dr. Jekyll admits that Mr. Hyde has no friends.

  • Science

    Chapter 1
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    I had taken a loathing to my gentleman at first sight. So had the child's family, which was only natural. But the doctor's case was what struck me. He was the usual cut and dry apothecary, of no particular age and colour, with a strong Edinburgh accent and about as emotional as a bagpipe. Well, sir, he was like the rest of us; every time he looked at my prisoner, I saw that Sawbones turn sick and white with desire to kill him. (1.8)

    We get the first hint of "unnatural" circumstances early in the text.

    Chapter 2
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    This little spirit of temper was somewhat of a relief to Mr. Utterson. "They have only differed on some point of science," he thought; and being a man of no scientific passions (except in the matter of conveyancing), he even added: "It is nothing worse than that!" (2.10)

    Mr. Utterson is not interested in science and does not value it as a topic of debate; therefore he is (unknowingly) an ideal person to investigate the strange connections between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

    Yet his attention had never before been so sharply and decisively arrested; and it was with a strong, superstitious prevision of success that he withdrew into the entry of the court. (2.16)

    Mr. Hyde’s footsteps invoke very strong feelings in Mr. Utterson.

    Chapter 3
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    "I never saw a man so distressed as you were by my will; unless it were that hide-bound pedant, Lanyon, at what he called my scientific heresies. O, I know he's a good fellow—you needn't frown—an excellent fellow, and I always mean to see more of him; but a hide-bound pedant for all that; an ignorant, blatant pedant. I was never more disappointed in any man than Lanyon." (3.3)

    Science is a serious matter for the gentlemen in Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

    Chapter 4
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    Mr. Hyde had numbered few familiars—even the master of the servant maid had only seen him twice; his family could nowhere be traced; he had never been photographed; and the few who could describe him differed widely, as common observers will. Only on one point were they agreed; and that was the haunting sense of unexpressed deformity with which the fugitive impressed his beholders. (4.18)

    Nearly every character finds it difficult to properly describe Mr. Hyde; he is not exactly human, they all say.

    Chapter 8
    Poole

    "Well, sir," he said, "here we are, and God grant there be nothing wrong."

    "Amen, Poole," said the lawyer. (8.15)

    As in many other places in the text, God is invoked in a plea.

    "Changed? Well, yes, I think so," said the butler. "Have I been twenty years in this man's house, to be deceived about his voice? No, sir; master's made away with; he was made away with eight days ago, when we heard him cry out upon the name of God; and who's in there instead of him, and why it stays there, is a thing that cries to Heaven, Mr. Utterson!" (8.31)

    Dr. Jekyll (who presumably is inside the laboratory) is in such depths of despair that he believes only God can aid him.

    Chapter 9
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    Here I proceeded to examine its contents. The powders were neatly enough made up, but not with the nicety of the dispensing chemist; so that it was plain they were of Jekyll's private manufacture. (9.11)

    We are given concrete evidence that Dr. Jekyll performs his own scientific experiments.

    Dr. Hastie Lanyon

    What he told me in the next hour, I cannot bring my mind to set on paper. I saw what I saw, I heard what I heard, and my soul sickened at it; and yet now when that sight has faded from my eyes, I ask myself if I believe it, and I cannot answer. My life is shaken to its roots; sleep has left me; the deadliest terror sits by me at all hours of the day and night; and I feel that my days are numbered, and that I must die; and yet I shall die incredulous. As for the moral turpitude that man unveiled to me, even with tears of penitence, I can not, even in memory, dwell on it without a start of horror. (9.33)

    Dr. Lanyon refuses to allow witnessing the transformation to reverse his long-held scientific beliefs; furthermore, Dr. Jekyll’s story was so horrifying one could say that it scared Dr. Lanyon to death.

    "O God!" I screamed, and "O God!" again and again; for there before my eyes—pale and shaken, and half fainting, and groping before him with his hands, like a man restored from death—there stood Henry Jekyll! (9.32)

    For Dr. Lanyon, Mr. Hyde’s transformation into Dr. Jekyll is akin to restoring a man from death.

    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    He thanked me with a smiling nod, measured out a few minims of the red tincture and added one of the powders. The mixture, which was at first of a reddish hue, began, in proportion as the crystals melted, to brighten in colour, to effervesce audibly, and to throw off small fumes of vapour. Suddenly and at the same moment, the ebullition ceased and the compound changed to a dark purple, which faded again more slowly to a watery green. My visitor, who had watched these metamorphoses with a keen eye, smiled, set down the glass upon the table, and then turned and looked upon me with an air of scrutiny. (9.27)

    The potion goes through a transformative process just as Dr. Jekyll does.

    "It is well," replied my visitor. "Lanyon, you remember your vows: what follows is under the seal of our profession. And now, you who have so long been bound to the most narrow and material views, you who have denied the virtue of transcendental medicine, you who have derided your superiors—behold!" (9.30)

    Dr. Lanyon adheres to a more rational brand of science, which is eventually blasted apart by Mr. Hyde’s transformation.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    After all, I reflected, I was like my neighbours; and then I smiled, comparing myself with other men, comparing my active good-will with the lazy cruelty of their neglect. And at the very moment of that vainglorious thought, a qualm came over me, a horrid nausea and the most deadly shuddering. These passed away, and left me faint; and then as in its turn faintness subsided, I began to be aware of a change in the temper of my thoughts, a greater boldness, a contempt of danger, a solution of the bonds of obligation. I looked down; my clothes hung formlessly on my shrunken limbs; the hand that lay on my knee was corded and hairy. I was once more Edward Hyde. A moment before I had been safe of all men's respect, wealthy, beloved—the cloth laying for me in the dining-room at home; and now I was the common quarry of mankind, hunted, houseless, a known murderer, thrall to the gallows. (10.22)

    Somehow the transformation from Dr. Jekyll to Mr. Hyde is no longer linked to swallowing a potion, but rather to Dr. Jekyll’s thoughts. We never learn why that shift happens, and it is up to our imaginations to make sense of it.

    I hesitated long before I put this theory to the test of practice. I knew well that I risked death; for any drug that so potently controlled and shook the very fortress of identity, might, by the least scruple of an overdose or at the least inopportunity in the moment of exhibition, utterly blot out that immaterial tabernacle which I looked to it to change. But the temptation of a discovery so singular and profound at last overcame the suggestions of alarm. (10.3)

    Dr. Jekyll well knows the associated risks of using himself as a lab rat (for example, death), but the temptation to dissociate good and evil proves to be too strong.

    I was so far in my reflections when, as I have said, a side light began to shine upon the subject from the laboratory table. I began to perceive more deeply than it has ever yet been stated, the trembling immateriality, the mistlike transience, of this seemingly so solid body in which we walk attired. Certain agents I found to have the power to shake and pluck back that fleshly vestment, even as a wind might toss the curtains of a pavilion. (10.2)

    Dr. Jekyll argues that our physical bodies are easily transformed. But what about our non-physical aspects?

    My provision of the salt, which had never been renewed since the date of the first experiment, began to run low. I sent out for a fresh supply and mixed the draught; the ebullition followed, and the first change of colour, not the second; I drank it and it was without efficiency. You will learn from Poole how I have had London ransacked; it was in vain; and I am now persuaded that my first supply was impure, and that it was that unknown impurity which lent efficacy to the draught. (10.27)

    Although Dr. Jekyll is a scientist, he fails to understand fully how his potion works. Perhaps the nature of mankind is beyond the grasp of science.

  • Good vs. Evil

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Enfield

    "I see you feel as I do," said Mr. Enfield. "Yes, it's a bad story. For my man was a fellow that nobody could have to do with, a really damnable man; and the person that drew the cheque is the very pink of the proprieties, celebrated too, and (what makes it worse) one of your fellows who do what they call good. Black mail I suppose; an honest man paying through the nose for some of the capers of his youth. Black Mail House is what I call the place with the door, in consequence. Though even that, you know, is far from explaining all," he added, and with the words fell into a vein of musing. (1.10)

    Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are set up as diametric opposites on the good/evil spectrum. We know this about them even before we know their names.

    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    But he had an approved tolerance for others; sometimes wondering, almost with envy, at the high pressure of spirits involved in their misdeeds; and in any extremity inclined to help rather than to reprove. "I incline to Cain's heresy," he used to say quaintly: "I let my brother go to the devil in his own way." In this character, it was frequently his fortune to be the last reputable acquaintance and the last good influence in the lives of downgoing men. (1.1)

    Mr. Utterson is less judgmental of bad behavior than most of his contemporaries.

    Chapter 2
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    This document had long been the lawyer's eyesore. It offended him both as a lawyer and as a lover of the sane and customary sides of life, to whom the fanciful was the immodest. And hitherto it was his ignorance of Mr. Hyde that had swelled his indignation; now, by a sudden turn, it was his knowledge. It was already bad enough when the name was but a name of which he could learn no more. It was worse when it began to be clothed upon with detestable attributes; and out of the shifting, insubstantial mists that had so long baffled his eye, there leaped up the sudden, definite presentment of a fiend. (2.1)

    Mr. Utterson is very definitely disturbed by the idea that a) Dr. Jekyll would give over his fortune to some unknown person, and b) that this unknown person is supposedly evil.

    And the lawyer set out homeward with a very heavy heart. "Poor Harry Jekyll," he thought, "my mind misgives me he is in deep waters! He was wild when he was young; a long while ago to be sure; but in the law of God, there is no statute of limitations. Ay, it must be that; the ghost of some old sin, the cancer of some concealed disgrace: punishment coming, PEDE CLAUDO, years after memory has forgotten and self-love condoned the fault." And the lawyer, scared by the thought, brooded awhile on his own past, groping in all the corners of memory, least by chance some Jack-in-the-Box of an old iniquity should leap to light there. His past was fairly blameless; few men could read the rolls of their life with less apprehension; yet he was humbled to the dust by the many ill things he had done, and raised up again into a sober and fearful gratitude by the many he had come so near to doing yet avoided. And then by a return on his former subject, he conceived a spark of hope. "This Master Hyde, if he were studied," thought he, "must have secrets of his own; black secrets, by the look of him; secrets compared to which poor Jekyll's worst would be like sunshine." (2.50)

    Mr. Utterson’s first conclusion is not that Dr. Jekyll is evil, but that Mr. Hyde must be blackmailing Dr. Jekyll for some past sins. This conclusion is prejudiced by feelings of friendship for Jekyll.

    Chapter 4
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    It seems she was romantically given, for she sat down upon her box, which stood immediately under the window, and fell into a dream of musing. Never (she used to say, with streaming tears, when she narrated that experience), never had she felt more at peace with all men or thought more kindly of the world. And as she so sat she became aware of an aged beautiful gentleman with white hair, drawing near along the lane; and advancing to meet him, another and very small gentleman, to whom at first she paid less attention. When they had come within speech (which was just under the maid's eyes) the older man bowed and accosted the other with a very pretty manner of politeness. It did not seem as if the subject of his address were of great importance; indeed, from his pointing, it some times appeared as if he were only inquiring his way; but the moon shone on his face as he spoke, and the girl was pleased to watch it, it seemed to breathe such an innocent and old-world kindness of disposition, yet with something high too, as of a well-founded self-content. (4.1)

    The maid felt she was witnessing pure goodness and peace—before Hyde arrived.

    The thoughts of his mind, besides, were of the gloomiest dye; and when he glanced at the companion of his drive, he was conscious of some touch of that terror of the law and the law's officers, which may at times assail the most honest. (4.10)

    Although Mr. Utterson is an honest man, as in, a good man, the law still terrifies him and makes him think about past misdeeds.

    An ivory-faced and silvery-haired old woman opened the door. She had an evil face, smoothed by hypocrisy: but her manners were excellent. (4.12)

    Even Mr. Hyde’s housekeeper is portrayed as evil.

    He had in his hand a heavy cane, with which he was trifling; but he answered never a word, and seemed to listen with an ill-contained impatience. And then all of a sudden he broke out in a great flame of anger, stamping with his foot, brandishing the cane, and carrying on (as the maid described it) like a madman. The old gentleman took a step back, with the air of one very much surprised and a trifle hurt; and at that Mr. Hyde broke out of all bounds and clubbed him to the earth. And next moment, with ape-like fury, he was trampling his victim under foot and hailing down a storm of blows, under which the bones were audibly shattered and the body jumped upon the roadway. At the horror of these sights and sounds, the maid fainted. (4.1)

    The maid’s trust and faith in the goodness of people is horribly overturned by Mr. Hyde’s act of evil.

    Chapter 9
    Dr. Hastie Lanyon

    "Think before you answer, for it shall be done as you decide. As you decide, you shall be left as you were before, and neither richer nor wiser, unless the sense of service rendered to a man in mortal distress may be counted as a kind of riches of the soul. Or, if you shall so prefer to choose, a new province of knowledge and new avenues to fame and power shall be laid open to you, here, in this room, upon the instant; and your sight shall be blasted by a prodigy to stagger the unbelief of Satan." (9.28)

    Dr. Lanyon can either take comfort in this kind act, or choose to come face-to-face with evil.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    The next day, came the news that the murder had been overlooked, that the guilt of Hyde was patent to the world, and that the victim was a man high in public estimation. It was not only a crime, it had been a tragic folly. I think I was glad to know it; I think I was glad to have my better impulses thus buttressed and guarded by the terrors of the scaffold. Jekyll was now my city of refuge; let but Hyde peep out an instant, and the hands of all men would be raised to take and slay him. (10.20)

    The relationship between Jekyll as good and Hyde as evil grows more complicated, and evil hides behind good and obscures matters further.

    I resolved in my future conduct to redeem the past; and I can say with honesty that my resolve was fruitful of some good. You know yourself how earnestly, in the last months of the last year, I laboured to relieve suffering; you know that much was done for others, and that the days passed quietly, almost happily for myself. (10.21)

    Dr. Jekyll tries in vain to atone for evildoing.

    That night I had come to the fatal cross-roads. Had I approached my discovery in a more noble spirit, had I risked the experiment while under the empire of generous or pious aspirations, all must have been otherwise, and from these agonies of death and birth, I had come forth an angel instead of a fiend. The drug had no discriminating action; it was neither diabolical nor divine; it but shook the doors of the prison-house of my disposition; and like the captives of Philippi, that which stood within ran forth. At that time my virtue slumbered; my evil, kept awake by ambition, was alert and swift to seize the occasion; and the thing that was projected was Edward Hyde. Hence, although I had now two characters as well as two appearances, one was wholly evil, and the other was still the old Henry Jekyll, that incongruous compound of whose reformation and improvement I had already learned to despair. The movement was thus wholly toward the worse. (10.8)

    Dr. Jekyll produces an evil version of himself—is this success or failure at separating good from evil?

    Enough then, that I not only recognised my natural body from the mere aura and effulgence of certain of the powers that made up my spirit, but managed to compound a drug by which these powers should be dethroned from their supremacy, and a second form and countenance substituted, none the less natural to me because they were the expression, and bore the stamp of lower elements in my soul. (10.2)

    Interestingly, Dr. Jekyll’s potion results in pure evil, rather than pure good.

    Between these two, I now felt I had to choose. My two natures had memory in common, but all other faculties were most unequally shared between them. Jekyll (who was composite) now with the most sensitive apprehensions, now with a greedy gusto, projected and shared in the pleasures and adventures of Hyde; but Hyde was indifferent to Jekyll, or but remembered him as the mountain bandit remembers the cavern in which he conceals himself from pursuit. Jekyll had more than a father's interest; Hyde had more than a son's indifference. To cast in my lot with Jekyll, was to die to those appetites which I had long secretly indulged and had of late begun to pamper. To cast it in with Hyde, was to die to a thousand interests and aspirations, and to become, at a blow and forever, despised and friendless. The bargain might appear unequal; but there was still another consideration in the scales; for while Jekyll would suffer smartingly in the fires of abstinence, Hyde would be not even conscious of all that he had lost. Strange as my circumstances were, the terms of this debate are as old and commonplace as man; much the same inducements and alarms cast the die for any tempted and trembling sinner; and it fell out with me, as it falls with so vast a majority of my fellows, that I chose the better part and was found wanting in the strength to keep to it. (10.16)

    Choosing between good and evil is not an easy choice, and comes with many consequences.

    The most racking pangs succeeded: a grinding in the bones, deadly nausea, and a horror of the spirit that cannot be exceeded at the hour of birth or death. Then these agonies began swiftly to subside, and I came to myself as if out of a great sickness. There was something strange in my sensations, something indescribably new and, from its very novelty, incredibly sweet. I felt younger, lighter, happier in body; within I was conscious of a heady recklessness, a current of disordered sensual images running like a millrace in my fancy, a solution of the bonds of obligation, an unknown but not an innocent freedom of the soul. I knew myself, at the first breath of this new life, to be more wicked, tenfold more wicked, sold a slave to my original evil; and the thought, in that moment, braced and delighted me like wine. I stretched out my hands, exulting in the freshness of these sensations; and in the act, I was suddenly aware that I had lost in stature. (10.4)

    Dr. Jekyll describes in very positive terms how it feels to be free "of the bonds of obligation." This is why Mr. Hyde is able to take over his body and mind.

    It was on the moral side, and in my own person, that I learned to recognise the thorough and primitive duality of man; I saw that, of the two natures that contended in the field of my consciousness, even if I could rightly be said to be either, it was only because I was radically both; and from an early date, even before the course of my scientific discoveries had begun to suggest the most naked possibility of such a miracle, I had learned to dwell with pleasure, as a beloved daydream, on the thought of the separation of these elements. If each, I told myself, could be housed in separate identities, life would be relieved of all that was unbearable; the unjust might go his way, delivered from the aspirations and remorse of his more upright twin; and the just could walk steadfastly and securely on his upward path, doing the good things in which he found his pleasure, and no longer exposed to disgrace and penitence by the hands of this extraneous evil. It was the curse of mankind that these incongruous faggots were thus bound together—that in the agonised womb of consciousness, these polar twins should continuously be struggling. How, then, were they dissociated? (10.1)

    Dr. Jekyll believes that good and evil should be separated from each other because he can not balance them well when they are mingled.

    Both sides of me were in dead earnest; I was no more myself when I laid aside restraint and plunged in shame, than when I laboured, in the eye of day, at the futherance of knowledge or the relief of sorrow and suffering. (10.1)

    Good and evil exist in equal parts in Dr. Jekyll.

    I do not suppose that, when a drunkard reasons with himself upon his vice, he is once out of five hundred times affected by the dangers that he runs through his brutish, physical insensibility; neither had I, long as I had considered my position, made enough allowance for the complete moral insensibility and insensate readiness to evil, which were the leading characters of Edward Hyde. Yet it was by these that I was punished. (10.17)

    Even Dr. Jekyll does not understand the depths of depravity Edward Hyde is capable of.

    There comes an end to all things; the most capacious measure is filled at last; and this brief condescension to my evil finally destroyed the balance of my soul. And yet I was not alarmed; the fall seemed natural, like a return to the old days before I had made my discovery. It was a fine, clear, January day, wet under foot where the frost had melted, but cloudless overhead; and the Regent's Park was full of winter chirrupings and sweet with spring odours. I sat in the sun on a bench; the animal within me licking the chops of memory; the spiritual side a little drowsed, promising subsequent penitence, but not yet moved to begin. After all, I reflected, I was like my neighbours; and then I smiled, comparing myself with other men, comparing my active good-will with the lazy cruelty of their neglect. And at the very moment of that vainglorious thought, a qualm came over me, a horrid nausea and the most deadly shuddering. These passed away, and left me faint; and then as in its turn faintness subsided, I began to be aware of a change in the temper of my thoughts, a greater boldness, a contempt of danger, a solution of the bonds of obligation. I looked down; my clothes hung formlessly on my shrunken limbs; the hand that lay on my knee was corded and hairy. I was once more Edward Hyde. A moment before I had been safe of all men's respect, wealthy, beloved—the cloth laying for me in the dining-room at home; and now I was the common quarry of mankind, hunted, houseless, a known murderer, thrall to the gallows. (10.22)

    Again, Stevenson elaborates on Jekyll as good and Hyde as evil—and the two living and fighting side-by-side in Jekyll’s psyche. Any semblance of balance is destroyed here in this passage.

  • Violence

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Enfield

    "Well, sir, the two ran into one another naturally enough at the corner; and then came the horrible part of the thing; for the man trampled calmly over the child's body and left her screaming on the ground." (1.8)

    Mr. Hyde commits violence against innocent children without batting an eye.

    Chapter 2
    Mr. Edward Hyde

    The other snarled aloud into a savage laugh; and the next moment, with extraordinary quickness, he had unlocked the door and disappeared into the house. (2.36)

    Mr. Hyde’s default personality is one of violent savagery.

    Chapter 3
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    "I have been wanting to speak to you, Jekyll," began the latter. "You know that will of yours?"

    A close observer might have gathered that the topic was distasteful; but the doctor carried it off gaily. (3.2)

    Dr. Jekyll does not handle unpleasant conversations by resorting to violence, as some people do (i.e., Hyde).

    Chapter 4

    And then all of a sudden he broke out in a great flame of anger, stamping with his foot, brandishing the cane, and carrying on (as the maid described it) like a madman. The old gentleman took a step back, with the air of one very much surprised and a trifle hurt; and at that Mr. Hyde broke out of all bounds and clubbed him to the earth. And next moment, with ape-like fury, he was trampling his victim under foot and hailing down a storm of blows, under which the bones were audibly shattered and the body jumped upon the roadway. (4.1)

    Mr. Hyde is unpredictably and excessively violent. His violence is repeatedly likened to animalistic savagery.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    The most racking pangs succeeded: a grinding in the bones, deadly nausea, and a horror of the spirit that cannot be exceeded at the hour of birth or death. (10.4)

    Transforming between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is not a smooth and seamless process, but rather immensely violent. This signifies the enormity of change that is occurring.

    I was conscious, even when I took the draught, of a more unbridled, a more furious propensity to ill. It must have been this, I suppose, that stirred in my soul that tempest of impatience with which I listened to the civilities of my unhappy victim; I declare, at least, before God, no man morally sane could have been guilty of that crime upon so pitiful a provocation; and that I struck in no more reasonable spirit than that in which a sick child may break a plaything. But I had voluntarily stripped myself of all those balancing instincts by which even the worst of us continues to walk with some degree of steadiness among temptations; and in my case, to be tempted, however slightly, was to fall. (10.18)

    Mr. Hyde has absolutely no scruples or morals; beating Sir Danvers to death is like a child breaking a plaything—an act of no consequence.

    Mr. Edward Hyde

    Instantly the spirit of hell awoke in me and raged. With a transport of glee, I mauled the unresisting body, tasting delight from every blow; and it was not till weariness had begun to succeed, that I was suddenly, in the top fit of my delirium, struck through the heart by a cold thrill of terror. A mist dispersed; I saw my life to be forfeit; and fled from the scene of these excesses, at once glorying and trembling, my lust of evil gratified and stimulated, my love of life screwed to the topmost peg. (10.19)

    Mr. Hyde (or Dr. Jekyll) derives enormous pleasure from extremely violent acts.

    Once a woman spoke to him, offering, I think, a box of lights. He smote her in the face, and she fled. (10.24)

    Mr. Hyde is violent even to people who are perfectly civil.

  • Religion

    Chapter 1
    Mr. Enfield

    "I never saw a circle of such hateful faces; and there was the man in the middle, with a kind of black sneering coolness—frightened to, I could see that—but carrying it off, sir, really like Satan." (1.8)

    Before we even know Hyde’s name, he is likened to Satan.

    Chapter 2

    "O my poor old Harry Jekyll, if ever I read Satan's signature upon a face, it is on that of your new friend." (2.37)

    Mr. Hyde is repeatedly compared to Satan, demonstrating that he is indeed the embodiment of all evil.

    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    And the lawyer set out homeward with a very heavy heart. "Poor Harry Jekyll," he thought, "my mind misgives me he is in deep waters! He was wild when he was young; a long while ago to be sure; but in the law of God, there is no statute of limitations. Ay, it must be that; the ghost of some old sin, the cancer of some concealed disgrace: punishment coming, PEDE CLAUDO, years after memory has forgotten and self-love condoned the fault." (2.50)

    It is particularly interesting that Mr. Utterson mentions that "the law of God" has no statute of limitations. We’re not entirely sure what that means—are these just random thoughts? Does Mr. Utterson adhere to this law of God?

    He would be aware of the great field of lamps of a nocturnal city; then of the figure of a man walking swiftly; then of a child running from the doctor's; and then these met, and that human Juggernaut trod the child down and passed on regardless of her screams. (2.13)

    Aside from being an advancing, unstoppable destructive force, "juggernaut" also derives from the Hindu deity Lord Krishna. In his dream, therefore, Mr. Utterson compares Mr. Hyde to a powerful god.

    That evening Mr. Utterson came home to his bachelor house in sombre spirits and sat down to dinner without relish. It was his custom of a Sunday, when this meal was over, to sit close by the fire, a volume of some dry divinity on his reading desk, until the clock of the neighbouring church rang out the hour of twelve, when he would go soberly and gratefully to bed. (2.1)

    Not only does Mr. Utterson seek to educate himself theologically, but he also keeps his schedule according to the ringing of church bells.

    Chapter 6
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    He came out of his seclusion, renewed relations with his friends, became once more their familiar guest and entertainer; and whilst he had always been, known for charities, he was now no less distinguished for religion. He was busy, he was much in the open air, he did good; his face seemed to open and brighten, as if with an inward consciousness of service. (6.1)

    Dr. Jekyll’s good works involve religious service.

    Chapter 8
    Mr. Gabriel Utterson

    Utterson was amazed to find it a copy of a pious work, for which Jekyll had several times expressed a great esteem, annotated, in his own hand, with startling blasphemies. (8.82)

    Dr. Jekyll reads and has opinions on religious works.

    Chapter 10
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    I declare, at least, before God, no man morally sane could have been guilty of that crime upon so pitiful a provocation. (10.18)

    God is named as the ultimate arbiter of guilt and innocence.

    The pangs of transformation had not done tearing him, before Henry Jekyll, with streaming tears of gratitude and remorse, had fallen upon his knees and lifted his clasped hands to God. (10.19)

    At the end of the day, Dr. Jekyll turns to God for redemption.

  • Other

    Chapter 3
    Dr. Henry Jekyll

    "O, I know he's a good fellow—you needn't frown—an excellent fellow, and I always mean to see more of him; but a hide-bound pedant for all that; an ignorant, blatant pedant. I was never more disappointed in any man than Lanyon." (3.3)

    Dr. Jekyll disapproves highly of Dr. Lanyon.