Study Guide

The Once and Future King Allusions

By T.H. White

Allusions

Literary and Philosophical References

  • Summa Logicales (S.1.1, S.5.14, S.9.92)
  • Aristotle, Organon (S.1.1, S.5.14)
  • Jacob (S.2.9): biblical patriarch.
  • Athene (S.3.84)
  • Archimedes (S.3.33)
  • Aristotle (S.4.17, S.17.44)
  • Hecate (S.4.17): Greek goddess associated with witchcraft and the moon.
  • Flavius Arrianus (S.5.6): 2nd-century Roman philosopher and primary source for accounts of Alexander the Great.
  • Neptune (S.5.22-23)
  • Balin and Balan (throughout S.8): characters from Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur.
  • Shakespeare, Macbeth (S.8.64)
  • Christopher Marlowe, Doctor Faustus (S.8.64)
  • Edgar Allan Poe, "The Bells" (S.8.93)
  • Erasmus (S.9.29)
  • Elijah (S.9.42): biblical prophet.
  • Rabbi Jachanan (S.9.42)
  • Castor and Pollux (S.9.68)
  • Circe (S.10.134)
  • Sir John de Mandeville (S.11.44-45)
  • Psalm 24:7 (S.13.84)
  • Sherlock Holmes (S.17.42)
  • Linnaeus (S.17.42)
  • Proserpine (S.17.73)
  • Orion (S.18.1)
  • Children of Lir (S.19.71-73)
  • blue-stocking (S.19.96) refers to an educated and intellectual woman, or a member of the 18th-century Blue Stockings Society.
  • Pegasus (S.19.30)
  • Eden (S.19.30, Q.2.95, Q.5.60)
  • Cinderella (S.20.13)
  • Shakespeare, Hamlet (S.21.57, C.10.3, C.11.121)
  • Cain and Abel (Q.3.50, C.14.11)
  • Shee (Q.5.2): Irish fairies.
  • Queen Maeve (Q.5.12)
  • King Conor Mac Nessa (Q.5, referenced in a big chunk of the chapter): illustrious king in Irish mythology, part of the Ulster Cycle.
  • Conan (Q.5.37): mythological Irish warrior leader.
  • Fianna (Q.5.37): mythological Irish and Scottish warrior bands.
  • Chaucer (Q.6.2, K.2.13, K.25.6, C.3.17)
  • Nunc Dimittis (Q.6.45): Luke 2:29-32. Line often used as the last in a religious service. (The fancy Latin means "Now you dismiss your servant.")
  • Liber de Natura Qorundam Animalium (Q.7.80-82): a medieval bestiary, or book that describes animals both real and mythic, along with their qualities and habits.
  • Finn MacCoul (Q.7.123): famed Hunter-Warrior of Irish mythology.
  • Sigmund Freud (Q.13.31)
  • Thomas Malory (Q.14.2, Q.14.19, K.1.21, K.28.1, K.39.1, C.3.11-12, C.14.38ff.)
  • Thomas Malory, Morte d'Arthur (Q.14.2, Q.14.19, K.3.9)
  • Fir Bolg (Q.14.4): a mythological ancient race that lived in Ireland.
  • Tuatha de Danaan (Q.14.4): a race of supernatural beings in Irish lore.
  • Tennyson (K.2.7, K.11.1, C.3.1)
  • Pre-Raphaelites (K.2.7)
  • Pentecost (K.8.77 and many times following)
  • Quasimodo (K.10.15)
  • Joseph of Arimathea (K.11.6, K.11.37, K.28.54, K.33.35)
  • Anna Karenina (K.16.4)
  • Vronsky (K.16.4)
  • Nausicaa (K.21.5): daughter of King Alcinous from Homer's Odyssey.
  • Ulysses (K.21.5)
  • chi-ro (K.25.8): early symbol for Jesus Christ, made by putting together the first two Greek letters of "Christ."
  • The Legend Aurea (K.25.8): The Golden Legend, a collection of saint's lives compiled c.1260.
  • Jeu d'Echecs Moralisé (K.25.8): a 13th-century book on the moral implications of chess.
  • Treatise of Hawkynge (K.25.8).
  • Ars Magna (K.25.8): The Great Art, a book on algebra dating to about the mid 1500s.
  • Raymond Lully (K.25.8, C.3.12): a 13th-century Spanish philosopher and logician.
  • Speculum Majus (K.25.8)
  • Holy Sepulchre (K.27.43)
  • One True Cross (K.27.43, 45, and earlier in K).
  • Gospels (K.27.45)
  • The Holy Shroud (K.27.45)
  • De Joinville (K.27.49)
  • Seven Deadly Sins (K.28.40)
  • King David (K.30.48)
  • Eden tree (K.30.48)
  • Calidone (K.30.48): Old Latin name given to extreme northern Scotland.
  • Ertanax (K.30.48)
  • "The impassioned, pigmy fist…" (K.32.4). A reference to a poem called "Everyman" by Siegfried Sassoon, a WWI-era British poet.
  • Rudyard Kipling (K.32.7)
  • Kim (K.32.7)
  • Archangel Michael (K.32.30)
  • She gathered her rosebuds while she might (K.34.7): a reference to the Robert Herrick poem, "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time."
  • Maid of Astolat (K.40.4): another name for Elaine in various Arthurian texts.
  • Edgar Allan Poe (C.1.5)
  • Romeo and Juliet (C.3.1)
  • Albertus Magnus (C.3.12): 13th-century German scholar, philosopher, and theologian, perhaps one of the greatest of the Middle Ages.
  • Friar Bacon (C.3.12): a character in a Renaissance-era comedy written by Robert Greene.
  • William of Malmesbury (C.3.13): foremost English historian of the 12th century. He wrote a bit of pseudo-history about some of Arthur's supposed exploits.
  • Lutterell Psalter (C.3.15): a richly illustrated British book of psalms created around the mid 1300s.
  • Angel Gabriel (C.3.15)
  • Blessed Virgin (C.3.15)
  • Alisoun (C.3.17): a character from Chaucer's The Miller's Tale.
  • Miller (C.3.17): a character from Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.
  • Reeve (C.3.17): a character from Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.
  • David and Bathsheba (C.5.4, C.8.1)
  • Susannah and the Elders (C.5.4)
  • parfit, gentle knight (C.7.72): a reference to the Knight from Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.
  • Uriah (C.8.1, C.14.1)
  • Alice in Wonderland (C.10.62)
  • Galeotto (C.11.1)
  • Dante (C.11.1, C.13.1)
  • Matthew Paris (C.11.3)
  • Cressida (C.11.121)
  • Delilah (C.11.121)
  • Jessica (C.11.121)
  • Antony (C.11.121)
  • Jocasta (C.11.121)
  • Juliet (C.11.121)
  • Gertrude (C.11.121)
  • Ophelia (C.11.121)
  • Desdemona (C.11.121)
  • Cuchullain (C.13.78)
  • Inferno (C.14.11)

Historical References

  • Eton (S.41.15-16)
  • Sir Peter Scott (S.3.25): an early 20th-century British conservationist and bird expert.
  • Encyclopedia Brittanica (S.3.25)
  • Cromwell (S.4.19)
  • Duke of York (S.5.6) (killed at Agincourt)
  • Cleopatra (S.5.40, C.11.121)
  • Uncle Sam (S.5.72)
  • Crécy (S.6.1)
  • Sparta (S.8.55)
  • Bolsheviks/bolshevists (S.8.64, K.8.1)
  • humors (S.9.26)
  • Edith Cavell (S.13.36)
  • Einstein (S.13.45, Q.10.37)
  • Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness (S.13.72)
  • Antland, Antland Over All (S.13.75): a twist on "Deutschland, Deutschland Uber Alles," the German national anthem.
  • Boxing Day (S.14.14l, S.15.1, several times after that in Ch. 14-16)
  • Morris dances (S.15.4)
  • Lord Baden-Powell (S.16.22)
  • Quaker (S.17.36)
  • 1066 (S.22.12)
  • lollards (S.22.28, C.1.45)
  • Norman Conquest (Q.3.50)
  • Saxon Conquest (Q.3.50)
  • Boer War (Q.4.21)
  • Mafeking night (Q.4.21-23)
  • Angevin kings (Q.4.34)
  • William the Conqueror (Q.4.34, K.5.12, C.3.8)
  • Henry the Third (Q.4.34)
  • Henry the Second (Q.4.34, Q.12.2)
  • Stephen (Q.4.34)
  • Louis (Q.4.34, C.3.3)
  • Pelagian heresy of Celestius (Q.5.1)
  • Uffizi (Q.5.72)
  • Crusades (Q.7.2, K.2.6, K.25.8, K.27.43, K.34.2)
  • An Austrian who invented a new way of life (Q.8.25): a reference to Adolf Hitler.
  • Jesus Christ (Q.3,23, Q.8.25, and several other places afterwards)
  • Pontius Pilate (Q.8.25)
  • Jingo (Q.9.7).
  • Coeur de Lion (Q.12.7, C.3.8, C.3.17)
  • Gregorian (Q.14.7)
  • Ambrosian (Q.14.7)
  • Order of the Garter (K.1.14)
  • Rufus (K.5.12)
  • Henry the First (K.5.12)
  • John (K.5.12, C.3.3)
  • Henry the Third (K.5.12)
  • Philip Augustus (K.7.2, C.3.3)
  • O'Connell (K.7.50)
  • Papist (K.7.50)
  • Protestant (K.7.50)
  • Stuart (K.7.50)
  • Orangemen (K.7.50)
  • Concentration camp (K.7.105)
  • Attila the Hun (K.9.17)
  • John Scotus Erigena (K.10.15)
  • Alexander (K.14.57, C.1.10)
  • St. Louis (K.14.57)
  • Euclid (K.16.10)
  • Guy Fawkes (K.25.4)
  • Montfaucon/Mountfalcon (K.25.5, C.3.16)
  • Grand National (K.25.5)
  • John of Salisbury (K.25.6)
  • Duruy (K.25.6)
  • Troyes (K.25.8)
  • Historia Francorum (K.25.8)
  • Gregory of Tours (K.25.8)
  • Knight of the Tower Landry (K.25.8)
  • Richard III (K.27.2)
  • droit de seigneuer (K.28.35)
  • Lord Burleigh (K.31.5)
  • Queen Elizabeth (K.31.5)
  • Patrick's Purgatory (K.32.34)
  • Queen Victoria (K.38.26)
  • Widen (K.39.1)
  • Hobbs (K.39.7)
  • Irish Republican Army (C.1.10)
  • Scots Nationalists (C.1.10)
  • Lynchahaun (C.1.10)
  • Adrian (C.1.10)
  • St. Jerome (C.1.10, C.3.3)
  • John Ball (C.1.18, C.14.17, C.14.19)
  • Fylfot (C.1.18): a heraldic symbol that looks kind of like a swastika
  • Morfa-Rhuddlan (C.3.3)
  • Sahib (C.3.3)
  • Llewellyn ap Griffith (C.3.3)
  • Plantagenets (C.3.3)
  • Capets (C.3.3)
  • Ingulf of Croyland (C.3.3)
  • Hus (C.3.3)
  • Jumièges (C.3.3)
  • Giles de Retz (C.3.3)
  • Duke of Berry (C.3.3)
  • Black Death (C.3.3, C.3.18)
  • Beauté (C.3.8)
  • Plaisance (C.3.8)
  • Malvoisin (C.3.8)
  • Boy Scout (C.3.15)
  • Cistercians (C.3.15, C.10.63)
  • Geoffrey de Preully (C.3.15)
  • Earl of Salisbury (C.3.15)
  • Bishop of Salisbury (C.3.15)
  • Edward III (C.3.15)
  • Barnabas Visconti (C.3.15)
  • St. Lawrence (C.3.15)
  • St. Michael (C.3.15)
  • St. Peter (C.3.15)
  • Engeurrand de Marigny (C.3.16)
  • Dukes of Berry and Brittany (C.3.16)
  • Truce of God (C.3.18)
  • Henry IV (C.5.1)
  • Bridge of Sighs (C.9.2)
  • Pasteur (C.14.2)
  • Curie (C.14.2)

Pop Culture References

  • "By the Light of the Silvery Moon" (S.13.30)
  • "My Mammy" (S.13.30)
  • Christmas cracker (S.18.49)
  • Punch and Judy (S.23.36)
  • Greensleeves (Q.8.1)
  • Bradman (K.2.1, K.2.3): a famous 20th-century Australian cricket player.
  • Woolley (K.2.3): a famous 20th-century British cricket player.
  • The Times (K.8.1)
  • Colonel Bogey (K.41.2): a popular mid-20th-century marching band song.
  • Cinematograph (K.45.1)

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