Study Guide

The Scarlet Letter

By Nathaniel Hawthorne

The Scarlet Letter Introduction

Passion, wild emotion, and forbidden love: is it the newest 50 Shades of Whatever? Or is it Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, published in 1850 and set over a century earlier, amid those stuffy old Puritans with their funny hats and buckles?

Yep. It's the second one. Nathaniel Hawthorne set the story of poor, persecuted Hester Prynne and her lover in the early Massachusetts Bay Colony, where his ancestors played a role in the persecution of Quaker women, as well as in the prosecution of women in the Salem Witch Trials. (Hey, you can't choose your family.) In The Scarlet Letter's preface, Hawthorne actually alludes to this history, taking blame for the actions of these ancestors and hoping that any curse brought about by their cruelty will be removed.

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Before we set you loose upon the thrilling world of mid-17th century Boston, let's do a quick recap: this was a society governed by Puritans, religious men and women who settled at Plymouth Rock, founded Boston, and began the experiment that grew into the US of A. The Puritans left the Church of England (the Christian church of, well, England) because they thought it was getting a little bit too relaxed about things, and they wanted the freedom to practice their own strict form of religion. Set in a deeply religious time and place, the novel is centered around the concept of man's relationship to himself (or herself) and to a Christian God.

The novel itself came out of a difficult time in Hawthorne's life. After graduating from Bowdoin College, where he hung around with the likes of poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and future United States President Franklin Pierce, Hawthorne found a government job at the Custom House in Salem. He lost the job in 1849, just before his beloved mother died. Instead of lying on the couch eating Flamin' Hot Cheetos and playing Halo during his unemployment (ahem), Hawthorne decided to write a book. When he read the final words of the final chapter to his wife, he ran to bed crying.

At that point, Hawthorne knew he had a hit on his hands, and what a hit it was. Oh, sure, it was one of the first mass-produced books sold in America, and it received praise from no less than Henry James himself—but can that compare to being on almost every American literature reading list in the history of everywhere?

What is The Scarlet Letter About and Why Should I Care?

It's Monday morning, and you slink into your American Studies class with a conscience so guilty, you begin to think the words "I didn't read the book" are tattooed on your forehead. Your classmates are gleefully exchanging anecdotes about their weekends as they pull out their glossy copies of The Scarlet Letter.

This is just going to have to be one of those classes where you do a lot of nodding.

"Did you read the book?" one of your classmates asks the kid sitting across the table. "Dude, of course not," he replies. "Neither did I," replies your classmate. Oops. It looks like no one has read the book. How are you all going to survive Mr. Chillingbone's class? Noticing the increasing frenzy, the class clown tries to calm everyone down: "Relax. All we have to know is that the book is about a lady who has an affair with a priest, like, thousands of years ago. It's juicier than a soap opera. We can make it up as we go."

Mr. Chillingbone, a wise, scarily perceptive Dumbledore look-alike of a man, walks into class somberly. He places his book and mug of tea on the table, looks around the room suspiciously, sniffs the air, and then fixes you in his gaze.

"Good morning, class. I hope you're all prepared for a lively discussion about the role Mistress Hibbins plays in developing our understanding of Hester Prynne. You there, Mr. Shmoop. Why don't you start us off?"

Uh-oh. You can either 1) run out of class immediately, 2) pretend to have read the book say something about two characters you've never even heard of, or 3) tell the truth.

"I'm sorry, Mr. Chillingbone, but I wasn't able to read the book." You are so noble.

"What!" Mr. Chillingbone roars. "You've had a whole week to read this classic tale, and you HAVEN'T READ THE BOOK?!" He stares around the room in scholarly horror. "Who else has neglected to read this work of sheer genius? Who?!"

No one says a thing. Your classmates thumb through their glossy copies, unwilling to fess up.

"Good," Mr. Chillingbone says. "I am glad there are still some scholars left in the world. As for you, Mr. Shmoop: please write a 20-page paper by Friday about Mistress Hibbins' role in the novel, taking into account the historical personage on which the character is based. You may go now."

Blushing and mortified, you leave class. Your classmates stare at you as you go, smirking. How does it feel to be Hester Prynne? How does it feel to tell the truth and to feel the pang of injustice? Whether it has to do with class, friendships, parents, or the law, we bet that, on some level, you and Hester have a lot in common.

The Scarlet Letter Resources

Movie or TV Productions

Backstory
This 1926 adaptation with early film star Lillian Gish gives us some backstory on Hester and Dimmesdale's relationship.

Play It Again
And they adapted it again in 1934, a little less successfully.

The Scarlet Letter (1979)
The 1979 TV miniseries production of The Scarlet Letter, directed by Rick Hauser.

Star Power!
A 1995 adaptation with Demi Moore and Gary Oldman. Too bad it's not very good.

Very Loosely Based
The 2010 film Easy A is very, very loosely based on The Scarlet Letter.

Audios

Morning Commute
Here's something to liven up that morning commute: the entire audiobook of The Scarlet Letter.

Images

Scandalous!
Check out how Lillian Gish's hair is all sexily down in this still from the 1926 movie.

Prim and Proper
Here she is again, this time with her hair respectably up.

Title Page
Here's the title page from the very first edition. We wonder if anyone saw the subtitle "A Romance" and was disappointed?

Noble 'Stache
Here's an older Hawthorne, sporting an impressive moustache.

Documents

Here Comes Hawthorne With a Baby Carriage
This article from Harper's Magazine has a lot of fun facts about Hawthorne, including a cute story about him pushing a baby carriage with his infant son. It also includes a letter he wrote, talking about The Scarlet Letter.

Other

Native Americans in Massachusetts and the New England Region
A guide to the various Native American tribes indigenous to Massachusetts and the New England region.

Websites

Oh, You're Here Too?
Curious about the people living in the area before the European settlers came along? Check out this guide dedicated to understanding the people of Essex County.

Just the Facts
PBS gives us some deets on Hawthorne's life and work.

Society Man
The Nathaniel Hawthorne Society. For just $5.00 a year, you, too, can subscribe to the Nathaniel Hawthorne Review.

Historical Documents

No One Likes a Critic
Well, this guy's okay. George Loring reviews The Scarlet Letter in 1850. We… think he liked it?

Miraculous Vitality!
A review of The Scarlet Letter from 1886 gives the book an A+.

Video

When Indians Attack
Here's the trailer from the 1995 movie with Demi Moore and Gary Oldman. Apparently, they took some liberties with the story.

Clear Your Schedule
At least for the next 1:11:28. You can watch the entire 1934 adaptation here.

Audio

Greatest Hits
Homegirl Taylor Swift namechecks The Scarlet Letter in "Love Story."