Study Guide

The King's Speech Summary

The King's Speech Summary

In the opening scene, we find out that King George V rules over a quarter of the world's population and that his second son, the Duke of York, is supposed to give a speech in front of tens of thousands of people. 

Of course, the speech doesn't go well at all. Why? Cecause "Bertie" can't string two words together without falling into a bad stutter.

Flash forward to eight years later, and we find Bertie sitting in the office of a speech therapist who's trying all sorts of cockamamie ideas to cure his stutter. Marbles in the mouth? Doctor-approved cigarettes? Who are these quacks? Frustrated, Bertie gives up and tells his wife Elizabeth that he's finished with trying to cure his stutter.

Elizabeth doesn't give up, though. She visits one last controversial therapist named Lionel Logue and asks him if he can help her husband. He insists that he can, but he'll require total equality whenever Bertie is in his office.

Logue convinces Bertie to keep seeing him after he tricks Bertie into giving a stutter-free reading of Hamlet. Logue and Bertie work closely together, but no matter how much progress they make, all of it seems to evaporate as soon as Bertie gets into a stressful situation. That's why Logue insists on delving into Bertie's personal life; he's convinced that Bertie's stutter is connected to childhood trauma—which it probably is.

Things are already pretty bad, but they quickly get even worse. Bertie's father, King George V, passes away and leaves the throne to Bertie's irresponsible brother David. 

At least Bertie won't have to be king, right?


One day, Bertie gets the horrible news that his brother David is going to leave the throne of England in order to marry an American divorcée named Wallis. That means that Bertie will have to step up and become king. And if things weren't bad enough, England is about to go to war with Germany, which means the king (Bertie) will have to give speeches to rally his country.

This is a nightmare for Bertie, but Logue promises to help him deliver his speeches. In a dramatic scene at Westminster Abbey, Logue also makes Bertie realize that he deserves to be heard—not as a king, but as a human being.

In the movie's final scene, Logue steps into a broadcasting room with Bertie and helps him get through his first wartime speech. With Logue's help and friendship, Bertie gives a killer speech, and people all over England are inspired by his words. 

A final set of 411 tell us that Bertie and Logue would go on to be friends for the rest of their lives and that Logue would help Bertie with all of his wartime speeches. Bertie would go on to be known to all British subjects as "The Good King."

  • Scene 1

    Scene 1

    • A disclaimer pops up and tell us that the year is 1925, and that King George V rules over one-quarter of the world's population.
    • Yup, the Brits still had a lot of colonies in 1925.
    • We also learn that King George V asks his second son, the Duke of York, to make a speech in London on behalf of the royal family.
    • Roll opening credits, where we see shots of microphones and the Duke of York (played by Colin Firth) nervously practicing his speech in a top hat while other people look anxiously at him and try to reassure him.
    • Another man sits at a microphone and practices saying some syllables before telling everyone over the airwaves that the Duke of York is about to give a message from his father.
    • These are some of the first speeches ever made on radio by a member of the royal family.
    • The Duke of York has a lot of trouble even saying his first words. Eventually, a stutter completely overcomes him.
  • Scene 2

    Scene 2

    • We flash forward to 1934 (nine years later), where a car pulls up to an address in London's Piccadilly Street.
    • A doctor of some kind tells the Duke of York to take as big a breath of cigarette smoke as he possibly can, saying that smoking cigarettes calms the nerves and gives a person confidence.
    • Wait, was "confidence" code for "cancer" in 1930s England?
    • The doctor (or quack) then gets the duke to put seven large marbles in his mouth. The duke's wife is very skeptical, and the duke nearly chokes on the marbles. He spits them out and rushes away angrily.
    • The duke has a moment alone with his wife, where he stutters at how frustrated he is and asks his wife to promise him he won't have to do any more speech therapy.
  • Scene 3

    Scene 3

    • The duke's wife rides alone in a car down a fog-covered street. She pulls up to a building and goes to the office of a man named Lionel Logue.
    • She asks if there's anyone at home, and Mr. Logue comes out of the bathroom. He obviously doesn't know he's speaking to a duchess or he'd probably have a better sense of etiquette.
    • He greets the duchess as Mrs. Johnson, which means that the duchess must have hidden her identity.
    • He wants to know where Mr. Johnson is, but the duchess admits that he hasn't come. She's afraid that her husband has given up hope.
    • Mr. Logue exudes confidence about his ability to cure anyone's speech impediments "as long as they want to be cured."
    • The duchess, feeling her power as royalty, tells Logue that he will come to her residence and abide by all of her rules. But Logue says that he'll only see patients at his office and on his terms.
    • The duchess then asks Mr. Logue what he would say if her husband were the Duke of York.
    • Mr. Logue slowly walks back into the room with a puzzled look.
    • The duchess has heard that Logue's methods for speech therapy are considered controversial. Logue answers that he can cure her husband, but only if he has trust and total equality between the two of them—which is asking an awful lot from the royal family in 1934.
    • He also insists that the duke come to his office.
    • The duchess makes as if she's going to reject his terms, but suddenly asks, "When can you start?"
  • Scene 4

    Scene 4

    • Logue rides in a car with his grown son to have dinner with his family. They sit down and Logue tells them he had a special visitor that afternoon.
    • But then he backs down and remembers that he can't talk about it.
    • He also mentions that he has an audition.
    • It looks like Logue is also something of an amateur actor.
  • Scene 5

    Scene 5

    • The duke walks in on his wife telling bedtime stories to their two daughters.
    • The daughters want to hear him tell a story, but he volunteers to walk around like a penguin instead.
    • He tries to tell them a story about a penguin who needs to come home from the South Pole.
    • He does a fairly decent job despite his stutter. It's clear that he struggles a lot to get through his story.
    • After putting their daughters to bed, the duke and duchess walk through a hallway and talk about the duke's brother, Prince Edward VIII, who is having a scandalous relationship with a woman from the United States.
    • The duchess is shocked that Edward is bringing the woman to dinner. Oh yeah, and the woman is already married.
    • The duchess mentions that she has found a new speech therapist, but the duke says it's out of the question and the matter is settled.
  • Scene 6

    Scene 6

    • Logue stands before a group of three people, ready to audition for a play. He really stinks up the place and is thanked for his time within ten seconds of starting.
    • The main critic tells Logue that the company is looking for someone younger and a little more "regal," meaning that Logue looks and talks like a bum.
  • Scene 7

    Scene 7

    • The duchess gets into a cramped elevator from Logue's building with her husband—it looks like the matter wasn't as settled as the duke thought.
    • When they arrive at the office, a small boy comes out and tells them they can go in. He stutters badly while asking them if they need anything, then turns and asks Mr. Logue whether his speaking was all right.
    • Logue comes in and tells him he did wonderfully. He greets the duke and duchess as the Johnsons and asks the duke to come in while the duchess waits outside.
    • He tells the duke that the young stuttering boy could barely make a sound when he first came to him.
    • Logue sits down with the duke and says that he's waiting for him to speak.
    • The duke says that it can be a long wait if someone is waiting for him to speak.
    • Mr. Logue asks him if he knows any jokes, but the duke says that "timing isn't his strong suit."
    • Logue goes to make a cup of tea and asks the duke to call him Lionel. The duke argues that he'd like to call him "doctor," but Logue insists on Lionel.
    • Logue also wants to call the duke by a nickname like "Bertie" to establish trust, but it's out of the question for the duke, who wants to be called "Your Royal Highness."
    • Logue thinks they should act like equals in his office and asks the duke not to smoke in his office. As he puts it, "My castle, my rules."
    • He asks the duke what his first memory is, but the duke gets frustrated and says he doesn't want to discuss personal matters.
    • Logue then asks the duke when he began to stammer.
    • He insists that no child has ever learned to speak with a stutter and that it always starts later on.
    • The duke admits that he was four or five before his developed.
    • Logue asks the duke if he stammers when he talks to himself, and the duke admits that there's no stammer when he's just alone with himself.
    • So now Logue want to know what the duke thinks caused his stammer. The duke says he doesn't know and doesn't care.
    • Logue bets him a shilling that he can get him to speak flawlessly on the spot, and if he wins he wants to be able to ask more questions too.
    • Logue hands the duke a book of Shakespeare and asks him to start reading out loud. The duke stammers badly and can barely get a word out.
    • Logue then starts a record player that will record the duke's voice while he reads. Then he puts another set of headphones over the duke's ears and turns up the music so loudly that the duke can barely hear himself speak.
    • The duke starts reading aloud, but he quickly gets frustrated and tears off the earphones. He goes to leave, but Logue makes him take the recording of his voice before he goes. He also tells the duke that he spoke very well, and says he's not lying.
    • The duke goes out to his wife and says that Logue's treatment isn't going to work out.
    • Alone now, Logue mutters, "Bugger" to himself.
  • Scene 8

    Scene 8

    • King George V (the duke's father) gives a flawless Christmas speech over the radio, urging the British people to remain strong during tough times. This is, after all, the middle of the Great Depression.
    • When he's finished, the king turns to the duke and says, "Easy when you know how."
    • Now it's the duke's turn to sit down and say something. The king tells him to sit straight and show the mic who's in command.
    • The duke doesn't think he can give the speech, but the king tells him that the age of radio has begun and now the royal family needs to speak publicly. In the words of the king, they have become actors on a public stage.
    • George then goes on a rant about how his son Edward (the duke's brother and the next in line for the throne) is ruining the royal family's reputation by having a sexual relationship with an American woman who's been divorced twice.
    • He's also worried about what will happen to England when he (the king) dies, leaving people like Hitler and Stalin to run Europe.
    • That's why the king thinks it's crucial for the duke to learn how to be a leader and speak publicly, since Edward can't be relied upon.
    • The duke tries to read, but he can barely get a word out before his father becomes impatient and starts trying to coach him through the words, which only makes things worse.
  • Scene 9

    Scene 9

    • We look in on the duke lying on the couch with a cloth over his eyes listening to a record. He mutters, "Lying bastard" out loud and rushes to grab the recording that Logue gave him at the end of their last appointment.
    • He listens to himself stuttering while talking to Logue, then things go quiet.
    • After a few seconds, the duke hears himself reading a speech from Hamlet without a single stammer. His wife the duchess walks into the room with an amazed look on her face.
  • Scene 10

    Scene 10

    • The duke and duchess are back in Logue's office setting the terms for an ongoing arrangement.
    • The duke insists that their relationship be strictly business and that they not get into anything personal.
    • Logue insists that without personal reflection, they'll only be able to deal with the surface of the problem, but the duke and duchess are happy with that.
    • The duke blows up in rage when Logue mentions the shilling that the duke owes him.
    • The duke asks if he'll see Logue the next week, but Logue insists that they'll see each other every day.
    • We go into a montage of Logue getting the duke to do all kinds of silly things with his body to loosen himself up.
    • We also see shots of the duke improving a little in the speeches he gives. At the end, the duke gets caught up in trying to say the word "father."
  • Scene 11

    Scene 11

    • The duke's brother, Prince Edward, lands a plane in a field and greets the duke as "Bertie."
    • As they drive in a car together, Edward tells the duke that he thinks their father is dying early just to complicate Edward's relationship with the American woman named Wallis. If the king dies, then Edward needs to make some serious decisions about who he's going to take as a wife (since he'll be the King of England).
  • Scene 12

    Scene 12

    • We see the old and frail King George V in a chair and staring in confusion at a man who's trying to read a legal document to him.
    • It looks like they're trying to get things sorted out with the Kingdom of Britain before the king dies, but the king can't follow their words because his mind has degenerated.
    • He approves the document nonetheless. He barely recognizes the members of his family.
    • The duke walks in on his brother Edward talking to his mistress Wallis on the phone. The duke tries to call him to dinner.
    • In the dining room, Edward checks to see if his father is in pain. His mother then scolds him for being late and being generally unpleasant.
    • An attendant comes in and whispers something to the queen. Seconds later, we see King George dead with his family standing around his bed.
    • The old queen kisses Edward's hand and says, "Long live the King," because Edward is now the King of England.
    • The duke kisses his hand as well, and Edward says he hopes he'll be good like his father before collapsing onto his mother and crying. It's hardly a kingly way to act.
    • Later, the duke questions Edward about why he broke down in front of everyone. Edward says he's sad about his mistress Wallis because now there's no way he could ever marry her.
  • Scene 13

    Scene 13

    • Logue sits typing something in his office while listening to the radio broadcast about King George V's death.
    • His son asks him if it's time for a "shake," and Logue turns off the radio and leaves the room. He's going to act and they're going to guess which character he is.
    • Logue speaks for barely two seconds before one of his son's guesses his character, which is Caliban from Shakespeare's The Tempest. Logue continues his speech anyway. His son tries to act cool, but Logue gets him to smile.
    • There's a knock on the door and Logue asks his sons to leave. He finds the duke waiting outside and gives his condolences about the king's death.
    • Logue offers to put on some hot milk, but the duke surprisingly asks for something a little stronger.
    • Logue makes some stiff drinks and says he was never present for his father's death, which still makes him sad.
    • The duke says that he found out after the fact that his father once said he (the duke) had more guts than all his brothers put together.
    • He's sad his father couldn't say that to his face. He also tries to talk about his brother Edward, but can't get a word out. Logue tries to get him to sing his thoughts so that he won't stammer, but the duke resists.
    • Logue asks the duke if he feels strange now that his brother is king, but the duke admits that he's relived because he doesn't want to be king. Logue reminds him that he's still next in line if his brother doesn't produce an heir.
    • The duke responds by singing that the doctor is barking up the wrong tree. Logue reminds him that he never stammers when singing.
    • The duke starts working on a model and talks about his life without stuttering much because he's focusing on the model.
    • He talks about how his brothers teased him, and that his father encouraged them. Real nice, dad.
    • He says he was afraid of his father growing up, and that his children will probably be afraid of him.
    • Logue notices the duke's movements and asks if he was born right-handed. The duke says he was actually a lefty until he was punished and forced to use his right.
    • Logue tells him that this is common with people who stammer.
    • The duke also grew up wearing metal splints on his legs to correct his walk. They were incredibly painful.
    • Finally, the duke talks about how his first nanny used to love his brother and hated him (the duke). She'd pinch him to make him cry and refused to feed him. It took his parents three years to notice.
    • Logue asks about the duke's brother Johnny, who had epilepsy and died young. The duke says Johnny was a sweet boy.
    • The duke says that Logue is the first ordinary person he's ever spoken to. He's struck by how little he knows about normal people's lives.
  • Scene 14

    Scene 14

    • The duke and duchess drive up to a Scottish castle where they're going to meet Edward's mistress, Wallis Simpson. The duchess is annoyed that there are servants cutting down hundred year-old spruces just to improve the view for Wallis. But the duke tells her she'll have to be nice to Miss Simpson.
    • When the duke and duchess arrive at the castle, they find everyone drinking and being rowdy, which is hardly suitable for a royal party. Wallis Simpson loudly runs up and greets them.
    • The duchess goes to a window and speaks candidly with Winston Churchill about what Edward sees in Wallis.
    • The duchess suggests that it's all because Miss Simpson is good in bed.
  • Scene 15

    Scene 15

    • The duke chases Edward down into a wine cellar and asks him about the things he's been neglecting as king.
    • For starters, he wants to know what'll be done about Adolph Hitler, who seems to be marching over all of Europe.
    • Edward says he plans on marrying Wallis Simpson and carrying on just as he's been doing.
    • When the duke gets really upset, he starts stammering and Edward makes fun of him. The duke has some crucial things to say, but he can't get them out.
    • Edward accuses the duke of trying to bump him off the throne.
    • Edward returns to Wallis and flirts with her openly.
  • Scene 16

    Scene 16

    • The duke is back in Logue's office complaining about how he couldn't say a single word to his brother when he needed to. Logue wants to know why the duke stammers so much more with Edward than with him (Logue).
    • Logue helps the duke get his anger out by challenging him to swear. It turns out that the duke doesn't stammer when he swears.
    • The duke takes a walk with Logue and tells him all about his brother's plans to marry Wallis Simpson. Logue wants to know where this leaves the duke.
    • The duke says he'll do everything in his power to keep his brother on the throne.
    • Logue puts a hand on the duke's shoulder and says he can outshine the king, but the duke recoils and yells at Logue to stop taking so many liberties—they're definitely not equals and he's tired of Logue acting they are.
    • Logue asks the duke what he's so afraid of. The duke tells him to go away.
    • He calls Logue a nobody from nowhere and walks away, saying that their session is over.
  • Scene 17

    Scene 17

    • The duke visits Neville Baldwin, the Prime Minister of England. Chamberlain says that Edward (as the Head of the Church of England) can't possibly marry a twice-divorced American and stay King of England.
    • Baldwin also informs the duke that Wallis Simpson is seeing other men in addition to Edward, including a used car salesman.
    • Apparently, she's also seeing one of Hitler's ambassadors.
    • The duke wants to know how Baldwin can possibly leave an entire country without a government.
  • Scene 18

    Scene 18

    • Logue sits at his desk and his wife asks him what he's doing. He says he's having trouble with a patient who's practically afraid of his own shadow.
    • But Logue still thinks that his patient could be someone great.
    • His wife tells him that his patient might not want to be great and that this might just be something Logue wants.
    • Logue is worried that he has overstepped and thinks that he should apologize.
    • He visits the duke, but gets turned out into the rain before he can see him.
  • Scene 19

    Scene 19

    • The duke sits in his office with Winston Churchill, who says that the parliament will never support him.
    • Churchill also says that war is coming with Germany and that England will need a king to unite them.
    • The duke says that his brother isn't in his right mind. Churchill asks him what he'll call himself as king.
    • But the duke can't even respond because his stammer is too bad.
    • Churchill asks if he might call himself George after his father.
    • The duke meets with his brother and asks him how he's doing. Edward tells him that the decision has been made and it's over. He's going to leave the throne and marry Wallis Simpson.
    • Next thing we know, Edward and the duke are signing papers that make the duke the new King of England. He also declares his allegiance to the new king, George VI (formerly the duke).
    • Edward says he's confidence he can leave the country in the hands of his brother.
  • Scene 20

    Scene 20

    • We find George VI (now king) pacing around a room. He enters a second room where all the members of parliament are waiting for him. He's supposed to address them, but stammers badly.
    • Next, we see George's family moving from their old home into Buckingham Palace.
    • George comes home and opens his arms for his daughters, but they keep their distance and curtsy because he is king now.
    • He walks up and kisses them on their foreheads.
    • The new queen (formerly the duchess) asks him how his speech went, but he doesn't answer.
  • Scene 21

    Scene 21

    • The new queen visits George in his study. He is trying to familiarize himself with the business of the kingdom, but it's clear that the stress is getting the best of him.
    • He starts crying and saying he's not a king. He wants to go back to the way things were.
    • The queen tells him that she refused his first two proposals for marriage because she didn't want a royal life.
    • But then she accepted him because she thought his stammer would make people leave them alone.
    • We look in on the home of Lionel Logue, who is preparing his home for a visit from the king and queen.
    • George apologizes for the way he treated Logue in their last meeting and they go inside. Logue is the only one at home.
    • Logue and the king go into a separate room and the king gives Logue the shilling he owes him.
    • He also says that he understands why Logue was pushing him to believe in himself the last time they spoke. But Logue apologizes for the way he went about it.
    • George says that if he fails to give his next speech on the radio, people might demand that his brother come back.
    • Logue tells George that he doesn't have to carry his father or brother around wherever he goes. He doesn't need to be afraid of the things that scared him when he was five because he's his own man.
    • At this point, Logue's wife Myrtle comes home and recognizes the queen sitting in her dining room.
    • Logue tells George to wait a moment because he hasn't told his wife yet about his work with the king.
    • The queen and Myrtle exchange pleasantries while Myrtle struggles to hide her shock.
    • Meanwhile, George tells Logue to have some courage and go out to tell his wife what's going on. So he does.
  • Scene 22

    Scene 22

    • George walks with Logue into a large church and greets the archbishop, who tells him that the preparations are underway for his (George's) coronation.
    • The archbishop then walks him around and guides him through the steps that the ceremony will take.
    • George finds out that the ceremony will be broadcast on both radio and television, so he'll be under a lot of pressure to speak well.
    • Logue steps in and tells the archbishop that he'll need privacy in the church to prepare George for the ceremony.
    • The archbishop clearly doesn't take kindly to being spoken to so directly by a commoner like Logue.
    • Moments later, Logue comes walking down the middle row of the abbey and finds George sitting on a plush seat. George confronts Logue for not being a real doctor of speech pathology.
    • Someone (probably the archbishop) has informed George that Logue actually has no formal training in therapy.
    • Logue admits that he has no training, but he says that he was an actor who helped people learned to speak again after they came back from World War I totally shell-shocked and unable to speak. He helped these people by delving into their psychology.
    • Logue says his job was simply to let people speak and let them know someone was listening.
    • George still isn't satisfied, because there's no diploma on Logue's wall. But Logue says there was no such thing as training in speech therapy when he first started. The only thing he has is a ton of experience.
    • George gets out of St. Edward's Chair and paces the room, telling Logue that he should be locked up for treason for pretending to be able to help a king.
    • Now England is on the verge of war and they have a voiceless king they'll never rally behind.
    • When he turns around, George finds Logue sitting in St. Edward's Chair. He freaks out and says that the chair is only for royalty. But Logue isn't interested in fancy titles.
    • Logue asks why he should listen to King George, and King George screams, "Because I have a voice!"
    • This makes Logue pause before saying, "Yes, you do."
    • Logue then stands and tells George that he's the bravest person he knows and that he'll make a great king.
    • The archbishop comes walking in and asks what's going on.
    • He tells Logue he has just found a new speech therapist for the king and that Logue can leave.
    • George tells the archbishop that this won't be necessary and that he'll be keeping Logue.
    • With the archbishop gone, Logue asks George to return to St. Edward's Chair so they can practice his speech for the coronation.
  • Scene 23

    Scene 23

    • King George and his family watch the film of George's coronation, obviously happy with the results.
    • When the film is over, a new movie starts on about how Hitler is marching through all of Europe and destroying everything in his path.
    • King George kind of admires how well Hitler speaks in public and how well he rallies his people.
    • Next thing you know, George is speaking with the Prime Minister of England, who is visiting him to offer his resignation.
    • Neville Chamberlain will take his place as PM. Baldwin apologizes for being a weak leader, because he based his judgments on the assumption that there was no one in the world as evil as Hitler. Now it looks as though the world will fall into a second war.
    • It sounds like King George's greatest test is yet to come.
    • At the next moment, King George is on the radio declaring war on Germany while Logue listens with his family.
  • Scene 24

    Scene 24

    • A man comes in and hands King George some papers for a speech he must give to rally his people and his armed forces for war.
    • The speech will run around nine minutes, which is way longer than George has ever had to speak. He asks for Logue immediately.
    • Logue and his son drive straight to where George is waiting.
    • Logue shows up only forty minutes before the king has to give his broadcast because the streets are in chaos after the announcement of war.
    • Logue tries to help, but George is really flustered. He has no clue why his country would support someone like him.
    • While practicing his speech, King George starts dancing around the room and swearing his way through his speech, using every trick in the book to try and get through it.
    • George walks into the room for his broadcast and greets Neville Chamberlain (current Prime Minister) and Winston Churchill (who will become Prime Minster later during the war).
    • As George walks to his broadcast booth, Churchill walks with him and talks of how he once had a speech impediment too. But he found a way to turn it into a unique speaking style.
    • When they get into the recording room, George finds that Logue has completely enclosed the place in blankets to make it feel safe and isolated from the outside world.
    • The countdown to going on air begins. George tells Logue that no matter how things turn out, he doesn't know how to thank him.
    • Logue suggests knighthood and tells George to forget everything else and to say the speech to Logue as a friend.
    • And just like that, George begins his speech.
    • He ends up getting through the speech with success, with Logue coaching him through word by word.
    • He tells the people that it has become impossible to let Hitler continue rampaging across the world and that they must stop him.
    • The speech ends and the people running the broadcast start applauding. Logue tells George that he did a great job, although he still stammered a bit.
    • George jokes that he had to do it to remind people that it was him speaking.
    • George walks out into a room full of applause. He sits at his desk and gets his photo taken.
    • He tells Logue that he'll probably have to do many more wartime speeches, then thanks him again as a friend.
    • George's wife comes in and tells him, "I knew you'd be good" and she thanks Lionel warmly.
    • George hugs his daughters, who tell him he was halting at first but got much better as the speech went on. Now that's some honest feedback.
    • George walks out to a balcony, where thousands of people cheer him from the streets.
    • The screen fades to black.
    • Then a disclaimer pops up to tell us, "King George VI made Lionel Logue a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in 1944." The Royal Victorian Order is the only form of honor that rewards an act of personal service to the king or queen.
    • We also find out that Logue would go on to attend King George for every one of his wartime speeches. And through his speeches, George VI became "a symbol of national resistance."
    • Oh yeah, and Lionel and the King remained friends for the rest of their lives.