Study Guide

Afterwards Shout Outs

By Thomas Hardy

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Shout Outs

Literature, Philosophy, and Mythology

  • "rise again" (line 19): This could be a reference to the Christian belief in physical resurrection on Judgment Day.

Historical References

  • "postern" (line 1): This word is so startlingly old-fashioned in this modernist poem that we're going to classify it as a historical reference. A "postern" is the back door out of a castle, but it sure wasn't in common usage at the time Hardy was writing.

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