Study Guide

Chinese Exclusion Act Timeline

By Chester A. Arthur

Timeline

March 26, 1790

Naturalization Act of 1790

This law didn't let non-white people become citizens. Yes, it was totally legal at the time, and yes, that's seriously messed up.

January 24, 1848

Gold Discovered in California

This meant two things. One, the gold needed to be taken out of California, and two, railroads would have to be built to carry it. A ton of new workers were needed, and lots of Chinese immigrants were only too happy to oblige.

1848-1855

The Gold Rush

The important part here is that the Gold Rush ended, which meant that the labor demands dried up. Anyone coming over to serve as a miner was looking for other work, and there was only so much to go around.

1863-1869

Building of the Transcontinental Railroad

Back in the 19th century, trains were as fast as anyone could ever go. The railroad was stretching over inhospitable terrain, much of it still occupied by Native Americans who weren't necessarily pleased with this new intrusion. It was dangerous and difficult work. You know the answer here: Chinese immigrant labor.

1873-1879

The Panic of 1873

You know what's bad for jobs? An economic depression. Before this, there were tons of jobs for everyone. Now, all of a sudden, there weren't enough jobs to go around.

1870s

Denis Kearney founds the Workingmen's Party of California

Local workers in California weren't happy with the competition from Chinese labor. One of the results was this organization, whose goal was specifically to get rid of cheap Chinese labor.

March 3, 1875

Page Act of 1875 Signed Into Law

This limited immigration from Asian countries (but only Asian countries) to people who were coming voluntarily. We were kind of hoping no one would have to go anywhere involuntarily, but we're idealists. The law was aimed at keeping "undesirables" out, and it was the first law to do so.

April, 1876

Supreme Order of Caucasians Founded

A much bigger group than the Workingman's party, the Caucasians had pretty much the same goals.

1878

President Hayes Vetoes the First Draft

The first attempt at a Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by congress, but President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed it. (Chances are, this is the first and only thing you will remember about President Hayes.)

1879

California Adopts A New State Constitution

This brand spanking new constitution allowed the state to decide who got to live there and who didn't. Guess who they picked to exclude? If you said anyone but the Chinese, you're clearly not paying attention.

May 6, 1882

Chinese Exclusion Act signed into law

President Chester A. Arthur didn't share President Hayes' forward-thinking views, and signed the law.

October 1, 1888

Scott Act

President Grover Cleveland, the only man named after a Muppet and a Midwestern city, signed this bad boy into effect. It made the Chinese Exclusion Act even more powerful. Now any Chinese laborer leaving the country could never return.

May 13, 1889

The Chinese Exclusion Case

Its real name is Chae Chan Ping v. United States, and this is the case that upheld the legality of both the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Scott Act. So if you were hoping for the Supreme Court to ride in and save the day, sorry.

May 5, 1892

Moving The Goalposts With the Geary Act

The Chinese Exclusion Act was due to expire, having reached its ten-year date. The Geary Act extended the deadline by another ten years, and stripped Chinese residents of rights like being witnesses in court. It was upheld by the Supreme Court in Fong Yue Ting v. United States the following year.

April 29, 1902

Another Renewal? You Bet.

The 1902 Scott Act renewed the Chinese Exclusion Act, and this time, to save everyone a headache, they set no end date. Chinese immigration was essentially illegal for the foreseeable future.

December 17, 1943

Repealed. Finally.

When World War II rolled around, the U.S. found it had a readymade ally in China. The Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943, also known as the Magnuson Act, repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act.

It only took a world war…and this was still two years after China and the U.S. formally allied against Japan. While it did let residents finally become citizens, it also placed a quota on the amount of immigrants allowed to come over.