Science 4: Mapping Tools
Today we'll teach you all about the wondrous world of drawing maps of tools. Soon you'll be making your way from hammers to wrenches in no time. Oh wait...mapping tools. Not mapping tools. Hm. You'll just have to check out the video to figure this one out.
|Elementary and Middle School||4th Grade|
…wait…that might just be Mario….huh. [Mario appears]
But these tools don't always stay the same. [Caveman making a wheel]
As technology advances, we usually invent new and exciting tools to help people do their
jobs even better and faster. [An old car followed by a modern supercar]
And there's no better example of this than the tools for map-making, used both by the
surveyor who gathers the information about elevations and distances of points on the [Surveyor at work]
ground, and the cartographer, who takes that information and turns it into a map. [A cartographer in his office]
For instance, thousands of years ago, it was super difficult for cartographers and surveyors [Surveyor looking confused]
to determine their position relative to the cardinal directions – that's north, south,
east, and west, not the direction of the nearest St. Louis baseball player. [Baseball player appears]
But that all changed with the compass, which was first used by the Chinese in the 11th century. [Man holding a compass]
Using the natural magnetism of the Earth, a compass is able to point towards the North
pole, and allowed surveyors to quickly identify which direction was which. [Surveyor looks happy now he has a compass]
Another important tool in map-making is the sextant.
The sextant was first used in 1730. [Picture of a sextant]
It allows the user to measure the angle between any two visible objects, which was especially
important for using stars and the sun as navigational tools. [Man using a sextant]
We're guessing, "take a left turn somewhere past Orion…or…like…a forty-five degree
angle to…the Big Dipper, maybe?" [Guy looking confused]
weren't super helpful directions.
Moving onto our next tool... the telescope.
You've probably seen one of these before.
These were first used in the early 1600s, and allowed surveyors to measure angles and [Soldier using a telescope]
see far off into the distance.
More recently, cartographers have been able to gather data about the Earth from high up
above by using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and Shaquille O'Neal. [Satellite in orbit]
A Global Position System – which tends to go by its nickname, GPS – allows users to
know exactly where they are, using satellite positioning. [Woman using a GPS in her car]
The device can pick up signals from a satellite which can give it a very precise location.
It's like a compass on steroids. [GPS receiving satellite signals]
Then there's remote sensing, which allows elevations on the ground to be measured by
the use of electromagnetic waves sent from an airplane. [Airplane transmitting electromagnetic waves]
And of course, cartographers now use computer software, including CAD –or, Computer-Aided
Design - and GIS – Geographic Information System - which allows them to make more detailed [Cartographers working at a computer]
maps than ever before.
From compass to satellites, cartographers have a ton of of map-making tools at their
disposal, leading to some pretty swanky maps and models today. [Pictures of the various tools]
But what's next…?
Well, no one's ever made a life-sized model of Earth. [A globe the same size as the Earth]
How cool would that be?
Though it might be a little hard to find somewhere to put it…