Biomolecules and the Chemistry of Life
Topics in Depth
The Theme of Monomers, Polymers, and Dehydration Synthesis in Biomolecules and the Chemistry of Life
Some biological molecules are relatively small and may contain a handful of atoms bound together. Others are large and unwieldy and can contain hundreds or thousands of atoms. If you were trying to correctly assemble a molecule that big, you would probably want to start by putting together some smaller fragments, and then carefully link those fragments together at the end, much like piecing together patches of a quilt. Or like trying to find out who among your facebook friends knows a guy who knows a guy who knows a guy who can introduce you to Matthew Lewis. Longbottom love!
Um...not that we've ever done that.
In the molecular world, the small subunits that ultimately link together to form larger molecules are called monomers, which literally means "single unit" (mono = one). When a bunch of monomers join together into a much larger molecule, they form a polymer, meaning "many units" (poly = many).
How does this "linking together" happen? Are we talking about one monomer grabbing another monomer’s little molecular hand and never letting go? Not exactly, though that would make for an adorable webcomic. We would call it "Monamours." Clever, no? Anyway... There is a process by which this joining usually occurs, called dehydration synthesis. Two monomers line up next to each other, and just when you think they’re going to start line dancing, a hydrogen (H) from one monomer binds with a hydroxyl group (OH) from another monomer, and voilà! A water molecule is born: H+ + OH- = H2O.
During dehydration synthesis, two subunits, or monomers, bind to each other where they were once bound to their respective hydrogen (–H) or hydroxyl (–OH) groups. That's right. If it's a group, it gets a dash before it. This blissful union is presided over by an enzyme that is mainly there to help speed things along. The name of the process is dehydration synthesis because monomers are literally coming together and synthesizing a polymer by dehydrating, or removing a water molecule.
Need a picture? We were thinking that, too. On the chemical bond level of things, here is what happens when your body makes a triglyceride.
First, what one dehydration reaction looks like:
Great. Let's do it again. And again. This is called dehydration synthesis.
Super. Why is everything so straight and awkward-looking? Fine, we will fix it. Here is the final product. Happy? (Psst. When there are zigzag lines with no atom in sight (/\/\/\), this means that carbons and hydrogens are the only connecting atoms. Yes, chemists are lazy.)
Some anti-HIV drugs, called nucleotide analogs, work by interfering with the synthesis of DNA from monomers. Check out the structure of this drug and see if you can figure out why.
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