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Citations

1 "More Maxims of Mark," Mark Twain: Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches, & Essays, 1891-1910 (New York: Library of America, 1992), 942.
2 "Dior, Christian," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001-07), .
3 Amy M. Spindler, "Dior's Look, 50 Years Ago And Now," The New York Times, 13 December 1996.
4 Amy M. Spindler, "Dior's Look, 50 Years Ago And Now," The New York Times, 13 December 1996.
5 "Dior, Christian," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001-07), .
6 Current Biography (1982), The H. W. Wilson Company, http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/getResults.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.7.
7 Randye Hoder, "125 Years: Commemorative Fashion Section," Los Angeles Times, 22 October 2006, I38.
8 Ruth La Ferla, "Over the Top, as He Wants to Be," The New York Times, 13 April 2003.
9 See Ruth La Ferla, "Over the Top, as He Wants to Be," The New York Times, 13 April 2003; and the Andre Leon Talley interview in Essence (November 1996).
10 See the Andre Leon Talley interview with Jill Hudson for the Washington Post, 28 March 1994.
11 George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, new ed. (1935; New York: Dover Publications, 1988), 45.
12 George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, new ed. (1935; New York: Dover Publications, 1988), 5.
13 John Demos, A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 4.
14 Caleb Johnson, "Crime and Punishment in the Plymouth Colony," Pilgrim History, MayflowerHistory.com, http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/History/CrimeAndPunishment.php, accessed 9 January 2009.
15 George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, new ed. (1935; New York: Dover Publications, 1988), 63.
16 Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 7.
17 Alex Kuczynski, "How Blue Were My Jeans," New York Times, 28 September 2006, G4.
18 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 98-99.
19 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 99.
20 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 1.
21 Harper's Bazar, 1867, quoted in Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 10.
22 Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 7.
23 Olivia Flynt advertisement, 1876, in Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 4.
24 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88; "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
25 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 99.
26 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 12.
27 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88; "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
28 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88; "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
29 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 99.
30 See Sweatshop USA: The American Sweatshop in Historical and Global Perspective, eds. Daniel E. Bender and Richard A. Greenwald (New York : Routledge, 2003), 80-81.
31 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 99.
32 Randye Hoder, "125 Years: Commemorative Fashion Section," Los Angeles Times, 22 October 2006, I38.
33 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
34 Randye Hoder, "125 Years: Commemorative Fashion Section," Los Angeles Times, 22 October 2006, I38.
35 See the Harper's Bazaar survey conducted in 1934, cited in Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 72.
36 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88; "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
37 See Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 7.
38 Randye Hoder, "125 Years: Commemorative Fashion Section," Los Angeles Times, 22 October 2006, I38.
39 Randye Hoder, "125 Years: Commemorative Fashion Section," Los Angeles Times, 22 October 2006, I38.
40 Amy M. Spindler, "Dior's Look, 50 Years Ago And Now," The New York Times, 13 December 1996.
41 Randye Hoder, "125 Years: Commemorative Fashion Section," Los Angeles Times, 22 October 2006, I38.
42 Jenny Lyn Bader, "The Miniskirt as a National Security Threat," New York Times, 10 September 2000, 4.3.
43 Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57 (1986).
44 Jenny Lyn Bader, "The Miniskirt as a National Security Threat," New York Times, 10 September 2000, 4.3.
45 Sandra O'Loughlin, "Levi's boasts 150 years of wares via nostalgic vintage jeans tour," Brandweek 44:19 12 May 2003, 41.
46 Evelyn Iritani, "Hopes for a Vietnam Trade Shift," Los Angeles Times, 24 July 2006, C1.
47 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
48 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
49 Greg Hitt, "Made in Washington: How the Textile Industry Alone Won Quotas on Chinese Imports," Wall Street Journal, 10 November 2005, A.1.
50 See Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 1.
51 Niko Koppel, "Are Your Jeans Sagging? Go Directly to Jail," New York Times, 30 August 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/30/fashion/30baggy.html?_r=1&oref=slogin, accessed 9 January 2009.
52 "Baggy Pants Ban Signed into Law in Louisiana," National Public Radio, Talk of the Nation, 4 September 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14157759, accessed 9 January 2009; Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 1.
53 Niko Koppel, "Are Your Jeans Sagging? Go Directly to Jail," New York Times, 30 August 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/30/fashion/30baggy.html?_r=1&oref=slogin, accessed 9 January 2009.
54 Bridget Gutierrez, "Atlanta Public Schools Ban Saggy Pants," The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 10 December 2007, http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/atlanta/stories/2007/12/10/saggy_1211.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
55 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 98.
56 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 27.
57 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 27.
58 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 27.
59 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 27.
60 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 28.
61 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 28.
62 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 28.
63 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 28.
64 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 17.
65 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 22.
66 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 22.
67 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 24.
68 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 24.
69 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 24.
70 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 66.
71 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 77.
72 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 77.
73 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 77.
74 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
75 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
76 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 4.
77 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 4.
78 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 4.
79 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 4.
80 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 13.
81 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 13.
82 Jenny Lyn Bader, "The Miniskirt as a National Security Threat," New York Times, 10 September 2000, 4.3.
83 Jenny Lyn Bader, "The Miniskirt as a National Security Threat," New York Times, 10 September 2000, 4.3.
84 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
85 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
86 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
87 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
88 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
89 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
90 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
91 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
92 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
93 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
94 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
95 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
96 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
97 Michael Barbaro and Julie Creswell, "With a Trademark in Its Pocket, Levi's Turns to Suing Its Rivals," New York Times, 29 January 2007, A1.
98 Evelyn Iritani, "Hopes for a Vietnam Trade Shift," Los Angeles Times, 24 July 2006, C1.
99 Evelyn Iritani, "Hopes for a Vietnam Trade Shift," Los Angeles Times, 24 July 2006, C1.
100 Greg Hitt, "Made in Washington: How the Textile Industry Alone Won Quotas on Chinese Imports," Wall Street Journal, 10 November 2005, A.1.
101 Commerce Department data, cited in Greg Hitt, "Made in Washington: How the Textile Industry Alone Won Quotas on Chinese Imports," Wall Street Journal, 10 November 2005, A.1.
102 Commerce Department data, cited in Greg Hitt, "Made in Washington: How the Textile Industry Alone Won Quotas on Chinese Imports," Wall Street Journal, 10 November 2005, A.1.
103 Yet, as professor and former Black Panther Party member and activist Angela Davis has noted, these same iconic images—the afro hairstyle and the black leather jacket, for example—have since been stereotyped in popular culture and oftentimes in our understanding of the past. They carried important symbolic weight at the time, but our historical analyses must not risk reducing a "politics of liberation to a politics of fashion," as Davis argues. Angela Y. Davis, "Afro Images: Politics, Fashion, and Nostalgia," Critical Inquiry 21:1 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 37-39, 41-43, 45.
104 Corina Zappia, "Shell-Toed Superstar," The Village Voice, 2 March 2005, http://www.villagevoice.com/nyclife/0509,zappia7,61619,15.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
105 Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 9.
106 George Washington Plunkitt, "Dangers of the Dress Suit in Politics," recorded by journalist William L. Riordon, 1905, in Caroline Kennedy, A Patriot's Handbook: Songs, Poems, Stories, and Speeches Celebrating the Land We Love (New York: Hyperion, 2003), 85-6.
107 Robin Givhan, "Hillary Clinton's Tentative Dip Into New Neckline Territory," Washington Post, 20 July 2007, C01.
108 Charlotte Allen, "Sometimes It's Hard to Be A Woman," Los Angeles Times, 5 August 2007, M.6.
109 Judith Warner, "The Cleavage Conundrum," New York Times, 28 July 2007, A15.
110 Charlotte Allen, "Sometimes It's Hard to Be A Woman," Los Angeles Times, 5 August 2007, M.6.
111 Suzy Menkes, "Runways: Street-Smart Fashion and $1,500 Knockoffs," New York Times, 27 November 1994, A67.
112 Suzy Menkes, "Runways: Street-Smart Fashion and $1,500 Knockoffs," New York Times, 27 November 1994, A67.
113 Barbara Mikkelson, "Red Hot Mamas," American History, Snopes.com, 27 September 2007, http://www.snopes.com/history/american/burnbra.asp, accessed 9 January 2009.
114 Alfred B. Sundquist, 1972, quoted in Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 50.
115 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 50.
116 Ruth Rosen, The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America (New York: Penguin Books, 2000), 13-14.
117 Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963; New York: W.W. Norton, 2001), 261.
118 Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963; New York: W.W. Norton, 2001), 15.
119 Sisqó, "The Thong Song," Unleash the Dragon (Def Soul: 2000), http://www.completealbumlyrics.com/lyric/29418/Sisqo++The+Thong+Song.html, accessed 7 January 2009.
120 See Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 1.
121 Bridget Gutierrez, "Atlanta Public Schools Ban Saggy Pants," The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 10 December 2007, http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/atlanta/stories/2007/12/10/saggy_1211.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
122 "Baggy Pants Ban Signed into Law in Louisiana," National Public Radio, Talk of the Nation, 4 September 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14157759, accessed 9 January 2009; Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 1.
123 "Baggy Pants Ban Signed into Law in Louisiana," National Public Radio, Talk of the Nation, 4 September 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14157759, accessed 9 January 2009; Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 1.
124 Wade Goodwyn, "In Dallas, a Hip-Hop Plea: Pull Your Pants Up," National Public Radio, Morning Edition, 24 October 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15534306, accessed 7 January 2009.
125 "Saggy Pants Songwriter Sort of Says He's Sorry," National Public Radio, Bryant Park Project, 30 October 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15766499, accessed 7 January 2009.
126 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 11.
127 John Demos, A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 53.
128 Margaretta M. Lovell, Art in a Season of Revolution: Painters, Artisans, and Patrons in Early America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), 60.
129 George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, new ed. (1935; New York: Dover Publications, 1988), 64.
130 Margaretta M. Lovell, Art in a Season of Revolution: Painters, Artisans, and Patrons in Early America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), 99.
131 Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2002), 60.
132 Margaretta M. Lovell, Art in a Season of Revolution: Painters, Artisans, and Patrons in Early America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), 59-60.
133 Abigail Adams, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1799, quoted in Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 20.
134 All quotes from Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2002), 100.
135 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 25.
136 Deborah Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman?: Female Slaves in the Plantation South (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999), 95.
137 Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2002), 64.
138 See Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 12.
139 Christine Stansell, City of Women: Sex and Class in New York, 1789-1860 (New York: Knopf, 1986), 164.
140 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 39.
141 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 84.
142 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 3.
143 Elizabeth Walton, "Commonly Held Misconceptions About Historic Costume," Clothesline: The Online Journal of Costume and Dress, http://www.clotheslinejournal.com/victorian.myths.html, accessed 7 January 2009.
144 Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 26.
145 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 23.
146 Olivia Flynt advertisement, 1876, in Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 4.
147 Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 23.
148 Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 24, 53.
149 "Testing Body Shapers," Good Housekeeping 228:1 (January 1999), pg. 54.
150 Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (Basic Books, 1988), 98.
151 Kyle Spencer, "Our Crash Course on the Bikini," Cosmopolitan 237:2 (August 2004), 178.
152 Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (Basic Books, 1988), 98.
153 William Oscar Johnson, "In the Swim: Through the Centuries, Swimsuits Have Gone from the Ridiculous to the Sublime, With A Few Strange Stops In Between," Sports Illustrated 70:6 (February 1989), pp. 20-27.
154 Rose-Marie Turk, "Beauty and the Beach: Swimsuit Industry Zeroes In on Figure Flattery," Los Angeles Times, 26 May 1989, 1.
155 See J.H. Crowther, E.M. Wolf, & N. Sherwood, "Epidemiology of bulimia nervosa," in The Etiology of Bulimia Nervosa: The Individual and Familial Context, eds. M. Crowther, D.L. Tennenbaum. S.E. Hobfoll, & M.A.P. Stephens (Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Francis, 1992), pp. 1-26; C.G. Fairburn, P.J. Hay, & S.L. Welch, "Binge eating and bulimia nervosa: Distribution and determinants," in Binge Eating: Nature, Assessment, and Treatment, eds. C.G. Fairburn & G.T. Wilson, (New York: Guilford, 1993), pp. 123-143.
156 H.W. Hoek, and D. van Hoeken, "Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders," International Journal of Eating Disorders (2003), 383-396.
157 National Eating Disorders Association, Seattle, Washington, 2002 .
158 See Evelyn Iritani, "In Trade, Globalization Can Divide Old Friends; Asia," Los Angeles Times, 10 October 1999, 1.
159 Timothy J White. "NAFTA Revisited: Achievements and Challenges," Journal of Third World Studies 24:2 (Fall 2007), 236-9.
160 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
161 Robert Reich, quoted in Deborah Solomon and Greg Hitt, "A Globalization Winner Joins in Trade Backlash; Exports Boost Iowa, But Workers Still Fret; Campaigns Take Note," Wall Street Journal, 21 November 2007, A1.
162 See Evelyn Iritani, "In Trade, Globalization Can Divide Old Friends; Asia," Los Angeles Times, 10 October 1999, 1.
163 Greg Hitt, "Made in Washington: How the Textile Industry Alone Won Quotas on Chinese Imports," Wall Street Journal, 10 November 2005, A.1.
164 Greg Hitt, "Made in Washington: How the Textile Industry Alone Won Quotas on Chinese Imports," Wall Street Journal, 10 November 2005, A.1.
165 Greg Ip, "Politics & Economics: Richest Americans' Income Share Jumps Sharply," Wall Street Journal, 23 September 2006, A4.
166 See Mauricio Mazon, The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984), 5-6.
167 See Mauricio Mazon, The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984), 20-21.
168 Lieutenant Edward Duran Ayres, Los Angeles Sheriff's Department, quoted in Mauricio Mazon, The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984), 21-22.
169 7 June 1943 article, quoted in "People & Events: The Zoot Suit Riots of 1943," The American Experience, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/zoot/eng_peopleevents/e_riots.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
170 Anonymous Los Angeles police officer, quoted in "People & Events: The Zoot Suit Riots of 1943," The American Experience, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/zoot/eng_peopleevents/e_riots.html, accessed 7 January 2009.
171 People & Events: The Zoot Suit Riots of 1943, The American Experience, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/zoot/eng_peopleevents/e_riots.html, accessed 7 January 2009.
172 Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 48.
173 Alice Kessler-Harris, Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 241.
174 See Sweatshop USA: The American Sweatshop in Historical and Global Perspective, eds. Daniel E. Bender and Richard A. Greenwald (New York : Routledge, 2003), 80-81.
175 "141 Men and Girls Die in Waist Factory Fire," The New York Times, 26 March 1911, 1.
176 "141 Men and Girls Die in Waist Factory Fire," The New York Times, 26 March 1911, 1.
177 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
178 Michael Posner, quoted in Thomas L. Friedman, "The New Human Rights," New York Times, 30 July 1999, A19.
179 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
180 Kevin Burke, quoted in Evelyn Iritani, "Group Calls for Ban on Myanmar Imports; Leading organization of U.S. apparel and footwear makers joins campaign protesting human rights abuses," Los Angeles Times, 16April 2003, C4.
181 Evelyn Iritani, "Group Calls for Ban on Myanmar Imports; Leading organization of U.S. apparel and footwear makers joins campaign protesting human rights abuses," Los Angeles Times, 16April 2003, C4.
182 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
183 Fred Dickey, "Levi Strauss and the Price We Pay: The Cost of Apparel Has Declined for a Quarter Century, Helping Make Americans the Best- Clothed People in History. All Is Right in the Word, Unless You Ask How It Happened," Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2002, I14.
184 See Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 12.
185 Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2002), 162-3.
186 See Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 15.
187 Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2002), 164.
188 Like everything else that he wore or touched, Jefferson's undergarments have been preserved by his estate at Monticello, Virginia. This was only because of his fame; other men's old drawers were turned into rags. Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2002), 27-9.
189 See Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 109.
190 See Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 110.
191 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88; See "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
192 Randye Hoder, "125 Years: Commemorative Fashion Section," Los Angeles Times, 22 October 2006, I38.
193 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88; "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
194 Michael Barbaro and Julie Creswell, "With a Trademark in Its Pocket, Levi's Turns to Suing Its Rivals," New York Times, 29 January 2007, A1.
195 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88; "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
196 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
197 James Dean, In His Own Words (Avenel, New Jersey: Crescent Books, 1991).
198 "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
199 Robert Lenzner and Stephen S. Johnson, "A few yards of denim and five copper rivets," Forbes 157:4, Feb 26, 1996, 82-88.
200 Current Biography (1982), The H. W. Wilson Company, http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/getResults.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.7.
201 Calvin Klein, quoted in Stephen Brown, Imagining Marketing: Art, Aesthetics and the Avant-Garde (New York: Routledge, 2001), 36.
202 Rebecca Johnson, "walking a thin line," Vogue 197:4 (April 2007), 380.
203 Rebecca Johnson, "walking a thin line," Vogue 197:4 (April 2007), 380.
204 Cleo Glyde, "Failure to Lun," Marie Claire 14:4 (April 2007), 115; Rebecca Johnson, "walking a thin line," Vogue 197:4 (April 2007), 380.
205 Cleo Glyde, "Failure to Lun," Marie Claire 14:4 (April 2007), 115.
206 Christina Duff, "Retailing: Designers and stores play dress-up with kids," Wall Street Journal, 13 October 1993, B1.
207 "Keeping Up With Kids," Time 164:20 (15 November 2004), 116.
208 Shane White and Graham White, "Slave clothing and African-American culture in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries," Past & Present (August 1995), http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2279/is_n148/ai_17474755/pg_2, accessed 9 January 2009.
209 Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 135.
210 Mary V. Thompson, "The Private Life of George Washington's Slaves," Virginia Cavalcade 48:4 (Autumn 1999), 178-190.
211 Eleanor Alexander, "Slaves in the 'White House': The Washington Years, 1789-1797," paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, NA, Atlanta, GA, 26 September 2006, http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p142871_index.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
212 Shane White and Graham White, "Slave clothing and African-American culture in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries," Past & Present (August 1995), http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2279/is_n148/ai_17474755/pg_2, accessed 9 January 2009.
213 Shane White and Graham White, "Slave clothing and African-American culture in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries," Past & Present (August 1995), http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2279/is_n148/ai_17474755/pg_2, accessed 9 January 2009.
214 Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), 135.
215 Ronald Bailey, "The Other Side of Slavery: Black Labor, Cotton, and Textile Industrialization in Great Britain and the United States," Agricultural History 68:2, Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin, 1793-1993: A Symposium. (Spring, 1994), pp. 35-50.
216 Ronald Bailey, "The Other Side of Slavery: Black Labor, Cotton, and Textile Industrialization in Great Britain and the United States," Agricultural History 68:2, Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin, 1793-1993: A Symposium. (Spring, 1994), pp. 36.
217 Ronald Bailey, "The Other Side of Slavery: Black Labor, Cotton, and Textile Industrialization in Great Britain and the United States," Agricultural History 68:2, Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin, 1793-1993: A Symposium. (Spring, 1994), pp. 39-42.
218 See Tera W. Hunter, To 'Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women's Lives and Labors After the Civil War (Cambridge: Harvard Press, 1997).
219 Lisa M. Lauria, University of Virginia, Sexual Misconduct in Plymouth Colony, Appendices I and II, 1998, Appendix I: The Laws, The Plymouth Colony Archive Project, http://www.histarch.uiuc.edu/plymouth/Lauria2.html, accessed 9 January 2009.
220 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 14.
221 See Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 28-9.
222 Patrick Moore, "My Sisters: A Gay Man Learns to Love Trans Women," The Advocate, no. 982, 27 March 2007), pp. 34-36.
223 John Demos, A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 53-56.
224 "'Mythconceptions' Quiz Answer Key," Colonial House, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wnet/colonialhouse/print/p-teach_lesson1_answers.html, accessed 8 January 2009.
225 John Demos, A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 53-56.
226 George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, new ed. (1935; New York: Dover Publications, 1988), 60, 63-64.
227 George Francis Dow, Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, new ed. (1935; New York: Dover Publications, 1988), 64.
228 See the Harper's Bazaar survey conducted in 1934, cited in Jane Farrell-Beck and Colleen Gau, Uplift: The Bra in America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002), 72.
229 See Elaine Benson and John Esten, Unmentionables: A Brief History of Underwear (Simon & Schuster, 1996), 109.
230 Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 9.
231 Deborah Gray White, Ar'n't I a Woman?: Female Slaves in the Plantation South (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999), 95.
232 Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 29-30.
233 Merideth Wright, Everyday Dress of Rural America: 1783-1800, With Instructions and Patterns (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992), 9.
234 Jenny Lyn Bader, "The Miniskirt as a National Security Threat," New York Times, 10 September 2000, 4.3.
235 Jenny Lyn Bader, "The Miniskirt as a National Security Threat," New York Times, 10 September 2000, 4.3.
236 Sandra O'Loughlin, "Levi's boasts 150 years of wares via nostalgic vintage jeans tour," Brandweek 44:19, 12 May 2003, 41.
237 Linda Baumgarten, What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America (Williamsburg, VA: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 2002), 164.
238 From Chapter 4, available as electronic text from the University of Adelaide Library, 2004, .
239 "From 5 Societies, 486 Members, Atlanta, Georgia, to Mr. Jim English, Mayor of Atlanta, 1 August [1881]," quoted in Tera Hunter, Lesson Plan: African-American Workers' Protest in the New South, http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/gilded/hunter.html, accessed 7 January 2009.
240 George Washington Plunkitt, "Dangers of the Dress Suit in Politics," recorded by journalist William L. Riordon, 1905, in Caroline Kennedy, A Patriot's Handbook: Songs, Poems, Stories, and Speeches Celebrating the Land We Love (New York: Hyperion, 2003), 85-6.
241 Quoted in Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 18.
242 Niko Koppel, "Are Your Jeans Sagging? Go Directly to Jail," New York Times, 30 August 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/30/fashion/30baggy.html?_r=1&oref=slogin, accessed 9 January 2009.
243 Niko Koppel, "Are Your Jeans Sagging? Go Directly to Jail," New York Times, 30 August 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/30/fashion/30baggy.html?_r=1&oref=slogin, accessed 9 January 2009.
244 Quoted in Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 113.
245
246 Quoted in Jill Fields, An Intimate Affair: Women, Lingerie, and Sexuality (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 174.
247 Diane Feinstein, quoted in Karen De Witt, "The Nation: Beware of Him Who Requires New Clothes," New York Times, 26 March 1995, 4.16.
248 Calvin Klein, quoted in Stephen Brown, Imagining Marketing: Art, Aesthetics and the Avant-Garde (New York: Routledge, 2001), 36.
249 Irma Lipton, quoted in Karen De Witt, "The Nation: Beware of Him Who Requires New Clothes," New York Times, 26 March 1995, 4.16.
250 Sadie Frowne, "Days and Dreams," quoted in The Independent, 25 September 1902, from Leon Stein, Out of the Sweatshop: The Struggle for Industrial Democracy (New York: Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co., 1977), 60-61.
251 See "The blue jeans story, or how waist overalls for gold diggers, gun slingers and rebels without a cause got smart, clothed the American dream and conquered the world," New Internationalist, June 1998, Iss. 302, 26.
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