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The American Revolution

The American Revolution

 Table of Contents

The American Revolution Learning Guide: Citations

Sources we cite in The American Revolution

1 Gordon S. Wood, The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin (New York: Penguin Press, 2004), 130.
2 David McCullough, John Adams (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002), 67.
3 Quoted in Benjamin Stites Terry, A History of England from the Earliest Times to the Death of Queen Victoria (Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1908), 935.
4 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 147.
5 See Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 27.
6 Oxenbridge Thacher Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, XXII, 414, quoted in Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 36.
7 William L. Saunders, ed. The Colonial Records of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1886-1890), VI, 1261.
8 British Parliament, Quartering Act, 15 May 1765 version, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/quartering_act_165.htm, accessed 6 December 2007.
9 British Parliament, Quartering Act, 15 May 1765 version, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/quartering_act_165.htm, accessed 6 December 2007.
10 Bernhard Knollenberg, Origin of the American Revolution: 1759-1766 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1960), 228.
11 The Virginia Resolves draft, Virginia House of Burgesses, 29 May 1765, http://www.constitution.org/bcp/vir_res1765.htm, accessed 9 January 2009.
12 See the Stamp Act Congress statement of October 1765,
13 Gordon S. Wood, The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin (New York: Penguin Press, 2004), 130.
14 David McCullough, John Adams (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002), 67.
15 See Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 79.
16 Gary Nash, Race and Revolution (Madison, WI: Madison House, 1990), 31-33.
17 Gary Nash, Race and Revolution (Madison, WI: Madison House, 1990), 58.
18 British Parliament, Quartering Act, 2 June 1774 version, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/quartering_act_1774.htm, accessed 7 December 2007.
19 David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 46.
20 See the Continental Congress statement of 20 October 1774, http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/assoc74.htm, accessed 12 November 2007.
21 Quoted in David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 93.
22 Quoted in David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 109.
23 Quoted in David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 97.
24 See Jeffrey J. Crow, "Slave Rebelliousness and Social Conflict in North Carolina, 1775 to 1802," The William and Mary Quarterly 37:1, 3rd Ser., (January 1980), 83-84.
25 Continental Congress, Petition to the King, 8 July 1775, available online at Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/contcong/07-08-75.htm, accessed 19 November 2007.
26 See the Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition," 23 August 1775, http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/proc1775.htm, accessed 12 November 2007.
27 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 18.
28 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 18.
29 Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 179.
30 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 93.
31 See the Virginia Declaration of Rights, 12 June 1776, http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/vabor.htm, accessed 12 November 2007.
32 See Thomas Paine, The American Crisis II, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/paine/p2.htm, accessed 6 December 2007.
33 See Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 385.
34 George Washington, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 23 December 1777, available from the Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/amrev/turning/valley.html, accessed 6 December 2007].
35 George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 262.
36 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 147; and "'We Have Always Been the Frontier': The American Revolution in Shawnee Country," American Indian Quarterly 16:1 (Winter 1992), 42.
37 John Paul Jones, captain of the Bonhomme Richard reply to the British ship Serapis, 23 September 1779, in Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations Requested from the Congressional Research Service (Washington D.C.: Library of Congress, 1989); Bartleby.com, 2003, [6 December 2007]. In actuality, as A Dictionary of Quotations points out, "the exact wording of his reply is uncertain, and several accounts exist," but this is the standard version.
38 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 318.
39 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 319.
40 Gary Nash, Race and Revolution (Madison, WI: Madison House, 1990), 60.
41 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 319.
42 Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 21; Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 151.
43 Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 21; Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 151.
44 Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 21; Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 151.
45 Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 91.
46 Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 91.
47 Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 182.
48 Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 182.
49 Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 22.
50 Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 22.
51 Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 23.
52 Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 144.
53 Frank Luther Mott, "The Newspaper Coverage of Lexington and Concord," The New England Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 4. (Dec., 1944), 490.
54 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 144.
55 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 144.
56 See Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999).
57 See Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999).
58 Gordon S. Wood, "Reading the Founder's Minds," review of Lawrence Goldstone, Dark Bargain: Slavery, Profits, and the Struggle for the Constitution, and Robin Einhorn, American Taxation, American Slavery, in New York Review of Books 54:11 (28 June 2007), http://www.nybooks.com/articles/20342, accessed 7 December 2007.
59 Gordon S. Wood, "Reading the Founder's Minds," review of Lawrence Goldstone, Dark Bargain: Slavery, Profits, and the Struggle for the Constitution, and Robin Einhorn, American Taxation, American Slavery, in New York Review of Books 54:11 (28 June 2007), http://www.nybooks.com/articles/20342, accessed 7 December 2007.
60 Gordon S. Wood, "Reading the Founder's Minds," review of Lawrence Goldstone, Dark Bargain: Slavery, Profits, and the Struggle for the Constitution, and Robin Einhorn, American Taxation, American Slavery, in New York Review of Books 54:11 (28 June 2007), http://www.nybooks.com/articles/20342, accessed 7 December 2007.
61 See Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999).
62 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 4.
63 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 4.
64 John Sibley Butler, "Affirmative Action in the Military," (in Individual Cases), Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 523, Affirmative Action Revisited, (September 1992), 198.
65 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 176.
66 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 33.
67 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 33.
68 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 33.
69 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 28.
70 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 4.
71 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 4.
72 Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
73 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 34-5.
74 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 34-5.
75 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 35.
76 Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
77 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 160.
78 Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
79 Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
80 Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
81 Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
82 Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).
83 See David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 31.
84 Hannah Arendt, The New Yorker (12 September 1970), quotation no. 3984, The Columbia World of Quotations (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), www.bartleby.com/66/, accessed 19 November 2007.
85 Bernhard Knollenberg, Origin of the American Revolution: 1759-1766 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1960), 228.
86 The Virginia Resolves draft, Virginia House of Burgesses, 29 May 1765, .
87 Gordon S. Wood, The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin (New York: Penguin Press, 2004), 130.
88 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 160.
89 British Parliament, Quartering Act, 2 June 1774 version, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/quartering_act_1774.htm, accessed 7 December 2007.
90 British Parliament, Quartering Act, 15 May 1765 version, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/quartering_act_165.htm, accessed 6 December 2007.
91 Continental Congress, Petition to the King, 8 July 1775, available online at Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/contcong/07-08-75.htm, accessed 19 November 2007.
92 See the Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition," 23 August 1775, http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/proc1775.htm, accessed 12 November 2007.
93 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 18.
94 John Adams, letter to Hezekiah Niles, 13 February 1818, http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=599, accessed 19 November 2007.
95 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 144.
96 Chris Padgett, "Hearing the Antislavery Rank-and-File: The Wesleyan Methodist Schism of 1843," Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 12, No. 1. (Spring, 1992), 65-6.
97 See Sung Bok Kim, "The Limits of Politicization in the American Revolution: The Experience of Westchester County, New York," The Journal of American History 80:3 (December 1993), 876.
98 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 167-8.
99 Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 196.
100 John Adams, 1761, quoted in Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 171.
101 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 118.
102 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 171.
103 In Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 182.
104 See Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 140-2.
105 See Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999).
106 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 116.
107 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 116.
108 See Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999).
109 Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 187-8.
110 Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 145-7.
111 Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 158-9.
112 The Declaration of Independence, in George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), A6.
113 See, for example, United States Senate Republican Policy Committee, "The Declaration and Its Heroic Signers," 23 June 1998, http://www.senate.gov/~rpc/releases/1998/founders.htm, accessed 7 December 2007.
114 Richard D. Brown, "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A Collective View" (in Notes and Documents), The William and Mary Quarterly 33:3, 3rd Ser. (July 1976), pp. 465-480.
115 See also the Snopes.com analysis of this e-mail thread, last updated 3 July 2007, at http://www.snopes.com/history/american/pricepaid.asp, accessed 7 December 2007.
116 Richard D. Brown, "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A Collective View" (in Notes and Documents), The William and Mary Quarterly 33:3, 3rd Ser. (July 1976), pp. 465-480.
117 Quoted in David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 165.
118 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), fig. 12.
119 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), fig. 3.
120 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 51-2.
121 George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 252.
122 Joseph Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington (New York: Knopf, 2004).
123 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 28.
124 Quoted in George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 228-9; David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 191.
125 David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 190-3.
126 Quoted in George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 229.
127 David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 8.
128 George Washington, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 23 December 1777, available from the Library of Congress, http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/amrev/turning/valley.html, accessed 6 December 2007.
129 Gary Nash, Race and Revolution (Madison, WI: Madison House, 1990), 58.
130 Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 140.
131 Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1999), 140.
132 Peter Bestes, Sambo Freeman, Felix Holbrook, Chester Joie, Boston, 20 April 1773, in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 308-9.
133 "Worcester County, Massachusetts, Calls for the Abolition of Slavery, 1775," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 309.
134 See Gary Nash and Julie Roy Jeffrey, eds., The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, 4th ed. (New York: Longman, 2003), 136-7;George Washington, 1776, quoted in David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 90.
135 See Gary Nash and Julie Roy Jeffrey, eds., The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, 4th ed. (New York: Longman, 2003), 136-7.
136 See Gary Nash and Julie Roy Jeffrey, eds., The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, 4th ed. (New York: Longman, 2003), 136-7.
137 Anonymous, "A New England Mulatto Attacks Slavery, 1776," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 309-310.
138 John Sibley Butler, "Affirmative Action in the Military," (in Individual Cases), Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 523, Affirmative Action Revisited, (September 1992), 198.
139 John Greenwood, quoted in David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 36.
140 General William Heath to John Adams, 23 October 1775, quoted in David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 36.
141 See Ira Berlin, "The Revolution in Black Life," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 330-335.
142 Lorenzo J. Greene, "Some Observations on the Black Regiment of Rhode Island in the American Revolution," The Journal of Negro History 37:2 (Apr., 1952), 168-9.
143 See Ira Berlin, "The Revolution in Black Life," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 337.
144 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 312-4.
145 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 312-4.
146 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 315.
147 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 315.
148 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 315.
149 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 315-7.
150 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 315-7.
151 See United States State Department, "Women of Influence: Margaret Corbin," revised November 2006, http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/womeninfln/corbin.htm, accessed 11 December 2007.
152 Mary Beth Norton, "Revolutionary Advances for Women," in Major Problems in the Era of American Revolution: 1760-1791, ed. Richard D. Brown (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 317.
153 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 146.
154 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 146-7.
155 See Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 368.
156 George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 262-3.
157 George Washington, quoted in George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 262.
158 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 147.
159 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 147.
160 General William Heath to John Adams, 23 October 1775, quoted in David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 36.
161 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 155.
162 Colin G. Calloway, ed., The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America (Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 1994), 148.
163 Quoted in George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 272.
164 British Parliament, Quartering Act, 2 June 1774 version, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/quartering_act_1774.htm, accessed 7 December 2007.
165 British Parliament, Quartering Act, 15 May 1765 version, available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerrev/parliament/quartering_act_165.htm, accessed 6 December 2007.
166 See Don R. Gerlach, "A Note on the Quartering Act of 1774" (in Memoranda and Documents), The New England Quarterly 39:1 (March 1966), 80-88.
167 Quoted in David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 109.
168 Frank Luther Mott, "The Newspaper Coverage of Lexington and Concord," The New England Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 4. (Dec., 1944), 498.
169 George Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi, America: A Narrative History, Fifth Ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999), 230.
170 Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790 (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, by University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 280.
171 See David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon Schuster, 2005), 5-6.
172 See The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, "King George's Head," from the Sons of the American Revolution (Winter 1998), http://www.connecticutsar.org/articles/king_georges_head.htm, accessed 7 December 2007; National Public Radio, "Morning Edition," Washington, D.C., 4 July 2000, pg. 1, transcript available from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=351917711&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=1566&RQT=309&VName=PQD, accessed 7 December 2007, although NPR got Wolcott's first name wrong.
173 Gary Nash, Race and Revolution (Madison, WI: Madison House, 1990), 60-61.
174 Lindsey Galloway, "The Signs Still Point to Ross," U.S. News & World Report, 14 August 2006.
175 David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 32.
176 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 176.
177 James Otis, The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved (Boston, 1764), quoted in Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 34.
178 Francis Bernard, quoted in Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995), 18.
179 Quoted in Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 366.
180 Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790 (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, by University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 280.
181 General Thomas Gage to Lord Barrington, British Secretary at War, quoted in David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 31.
182 Richard Norton Smith, Patriarch: George Washington and the New American Nation (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1993), 14-15.
183 Phillis Wheatley and George Washington, both quoted in David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 90.
184 Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 110.
185 Phillis Wheatley and George Washington, both quoted in David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 90.
186 Captain Levi Preston, interviewed by Mellen Chamberlain, ca. 1843, quoted in David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere's Ride (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 163-4.
187 "middling," The American Heritage(r) Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), www.bartleby.com/61/, 5 December 2007.
188 For more analysis and statistics see Robert Middlekauff, The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982); John Richard Alden, The American Revolution, 1775-1783 (New York: Harper and Row, 1954); Charles Royster, A Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character, 1775-1783 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979); Richard B. Morris, ed., Encyclopedia of American History (New York: Harper & Row, 1976).
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