ELA: KINDERGARTEN - GRADE 12
LITERACY: GRADES 6 - 12
Speaking and Listening SL.9-10.4
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
SL.9-10.4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
This standard asks the age-old question, “If a speaker gives a speech, but nobody can understand him, did he really say anything at all?” Knowing what to say and how to support it with evidence is only half (or two-quarters) of the battle: the rest lies in knowing who you’re going to say it to. There’s never a good time to exchange your speech notes for a Congressional hearing with your speech notes for a troop of eight-year-old campers.
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Teaching Guides Using this Standard
- 1984 Teacher Pass
- A Raisin in the Sun Teacher Pass
- A Rose For Emily Teacher Pass
- A View from the Bridge Teacher Pass
- Animal Farm Teacher Pass
- Antigone Teacher Pass
- Beowulf Teacher Pass
- Brave New World Teacher Pass
- Death of a Salesman Teacher Pass
- Fahrenheit 451 Teacher Pass
- Fences Teacher Pass
- Frankenstein Teacher Pass
- Grapes Of Wrath Teacher Pass
- Great Expectations Teacher Pass
- Hamlet Teacher Pass
- Heart of Darkness Teacher Pass
- Julius Caesar Teacher Pass
- King Lear Teacher Pass
- Lord of the Flies Teacher Pass
- Macbeth Teacher Pass
- Moby Dick Teacher Pass
- Narrative of Frederick Douglass Teacher Pass
- Oedipus the King Teacher Pass
- Of Mice and Men Teacher Pass
- One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Teacher Pass
- Romeo and Juliet Teacher Pass
- Sula Teacher Pass
- The Aeneid Teacher Pass
- The As I Lay Dying Teacher Pass
- The Bluest Eye Teacher Pass
- The Canterbury Tales General Prologue Teacher Pass
- The Canterbury Tales: The Miller's Tale Teacher Pass
- The Canterbury Tales: The Wife of Bath's Prologue Teacher Pass
- The Cask of Amontillado Teacher Pass
- The Catch-22 Teacher Pass
- The Catcher in the Rye Teacher Pass
- The Crucible Teacher Pass
- The Great Gatsby Teacher Pass
- The House on Mango Street Teacher Pass
- The Iliad Teacher Pass
- The Lottery Teacher Pass
- The Metamorphosis Teacher Pass
- The Odyssey Teacher Pass
- The Old Man and the Sea Teacher Pass
- The Scarlet Letter Teacher Pass
- The Tell-Tale Heart Teacher Pass
- Their Eyes Were Watching God Teacher Pass
- Things Fall Apart Teacher Pass
- To Kill a Mockingbird Teacher Pass
- Twilight Teacher Pass
- Wide Sargasso Sea Teacher Pass
- Wuthering Heights Teacher Pass
Sample Activities for Use in Class
1. Preparation is Everything
In groups or as a class, have students brainstorm questions they might ask about a prospective audience before preparing a speech for that audience. To minimize confusion, you may wish to give students a sample topic that could be prepared for several different types of groups, such as “Ways to Keep an Egg From Breaking Inside a Cardboard Box” or “The History of Really Awesome Cars.” You may also wish to write the questions students develop on the board or have students write them down, and/or prepare a handout or worksheet after the activity that students can use when working on their own persuasive speaking or listening skills.
Sample questions students might develop include:
Who is my audience?
Why am I trying to get this information across? When I’m done talking, what do I want the people I’m talking to to do with this information?
What does my audience need in order to understand what I’m trying to say? For instance, do they need background information, or information presented in a different format (like audio books for blind people, etc.)?
Am I using the best information I can get to prepare my speech? What are some good resources that would provide information my audience can understand and use?
Am I presenting the information to my audience in the best way? Is there a more appropriate book/webpage/handout/activity/etc. that might help me get this information across to my audience better?
2. Planning is the Rest of Everything
Once students have prepared their questions, give them a sample topic - if you haven’t already - and assign them one of a varied set of audiences randomly. You may wish to put students in groups and assign one audience type to each group. Types of groups you may use include “kindergarteners,” “college students,” “a Congressional hearing,” or “a jury,” and/or more vague groups like “people who think your position on this topic is impossible/ridiculous/unfair” or “the person who is going to pay you to do a really awesome project on this topic, if you can convince him or her to see the topic from your point of view.” Have each group go through its questions and prepare answers based on the type of group they have been given. When finished, you can have groups discuss their responses with the rest of the class or have groups switch audiences and do the same thing again for the new audience, depending on the amount of time you can allot for this activity.