© 2016 Shmoop University, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jim Crow

Jim Crow

Jim Crow Primary Sources

Historical documents. What clues can you gather about the time, place, players, and culture?

The American "Lynching Industry"

Portion of an article on the American "lynching industry," printed in 1915 in the African-American publication The Crisis.

Lynching Statistics

View these staggering lynching statistics, listed by state and race and covering the years spanning from 1882 to 1968.

On the Lynching of Ed Johnson

A sermon delivered by Dr. Howard E. Jones, a white reverend, to his white congregation following the lynching murder of Ed Johnson, a black man accused of rape.

The Clansman

Full text of Thomas Dixon's novel The Clansman, along with illustrations, and a biography of the author.

An Interview with T.R. Davidson

T.R. Davidson describes growing up and working in North Carolina during the Jim Crow era.

An Interview with Thelma Williams

Thelma Williams reflects on her early years spent in Louisiana and North Carolina, where Jim Crow customs were deeply entrenched.

W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk

The full text of W. E. B. Du Bois's civil rights manifesto, The Souls of Black Folk.

Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery

The full text of Booker T. Washington's autobiography, Up From Slavery.

Ida B. Wells-Barnett, "Mob Rule in New Orleans"

"Mob Rule in New Orleans: Robert Charles and His Fight to Death, the Story of His Life, Burning Human Beings Alive, Other Lynching Statistics," an essay written by Ida B. Wells-Barnett in 1900.

Ida B. Wells-Barnett, "A Red Record"

"A Red Record: Tabulated Statistics and Alleged Causes of Lynching in the United States," an essay written by Ida B. Wells-Barnett in 1895.

Charles Chesnutt, "The Wife of His Youth"

"The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line," a series of essays by Charles W. Chesnutt, a prominent black author and activist.

The Civil Rights Cases of 1883

The majority ruling and the dissent filed by the United States Supreme Court in The Civil Rights Cases of 1883.

Henry McNeal Turner's Protest

Bishop Henry McNeal Turner's statement in protest of the Supreme Court ruling in The Civil Rights Cases of 1883.

Mrs. J. H. Adams's Request

Letter from Mrs. J. H. Adams, Macon, Georgia to the Bethlehem Baptist Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 1918.

Mr. Cleveland Galliard's Request

Letter from Cleveland Galliard of Mobile, Alabama to the Bethlehem Baptist Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 1917.

People who Shmooped this also Shmooped...