ELA: KINDERGARTEN - GRADE 12
LITERACY: GRADES 6 - 12
Standard 5: Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
Breakin’ it Down:
This standard works well in conjunction with Standard 3. While Standard 3 asks students to map the order and general idea of large chunks of text, this standard is more about the tiny details. Even though students might be able to say, “The second paragraph convinces the reader that global warming is real,” this standard forces them to answer the question: How does the author do that?
Does the author use a personal example? Discredit a counter-example? Introduce a statistic? Compare two sides of an issue? Or make a prediction?
Teach With Shmoop
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Teaching Guides Using this Standard
- 1984 Teacher Pass
- A Raisin in the Sun Teacher Pass
- A Rose For Emily Teacher Pass
- A View from the Bridge Teacher Pass
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Teacher Pass
- Animal Farm Teacher Pass
- Antigone Teacher Pass
- Beowulf Teacher Pass
- Brave New World Teacher Pass
- Death of a Salesman Teacher Pass
- Fahrenheit 451 Teacher Pass
- Fences Teacher Pass
- Frankenstein Teacher Pass
- Grapes Of Wrath Teacher Pass
- Great Expectations Teacher Pass
- Hamlet Teacher Pass
- Heart of Darkness Teacher Pass
- Julius Caesar Teacher Pass
- King Lear Teacher Pass
- Macbeth Teacher Pass
- Moby Dick Teacher Pass
- Narrative of Frederick Douglass Teacher Pass
- Of Mice and Men Teacher Pass
- One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Teacher Pass
- Othello Teacher Pass
- Romeo and Juliet Teacher Pass
- Sula Teacher Pass
- The Aeneid Teacher Pass
- The As I Lay Dying Teacher Pass
- The Bluest Eye Teacher Pass
- The Canterbury Tales General Prologue Teacher Pass
- The Canterbury Tales: The Miller's Tale Teacher Pass
- The Canterbury Tales: The Wife of Bath's Prologue Teacher Pass
- The Cask of Amontillado Teacher Pass
- The Catch-22 Teacher Pass
- The Catcher in the Rye Teacher Pass
- The Crucible Teacher Pass
- The Great Gatsby Teacher Pass
- The House on Mango Street Teacher Pass
- The Iliad Teacher Pass
- The Lottery Teacher Pass
- The Metamorphosis Teacher Pass
- The Old Man and the Sea Teacher Pass
- The Scarlet Letter Teacher Pass
- The Tell-Tale Heart Teacher Pass
- Their Eyes Were Watching God Teacher Pass
- Things Fall Apart Teacher Pass
- To Kill a Mockingbird Teacher Pass
- Twilight Teacher Pass
- Wide Sargasso Sea Teacher Pass
- Wuthering Heights Teacher Pass
Teacher Feature: Ideas for the classroom
1. HATCHLING: It’s all an advertisement! How are they getting you to buy in?
For students who are just starting to think about how arguments are built, a great introduction to this standard is teaching Modes of Persuasion: ethos, pathos, and logos. This is a great tool to get students noticing how an argument is built, especially in great historical speeches.
If you really want to get students hooked, pull in some modern advertisements that use these persuasive techniques. Get students talking about how modern copywriters convince people to buy something or believe in something. It’s a great segue into older informational documents.
|Ethos: Convincing the reader that the speaker is trustworthy or an expert on the topic being discussed (or at least that he/she has the support of experts).|
|Pathos: Appealing to the emotions of the audience to prove a point or convince them. (Make sure you highlight that in many speeches, using fear is a common tactic!)|
|Logos: Using logic to make a point or sway the reader -- it’s all about the facts and statistics!|
2. TAKE FLIGHT: Persuade me!
Integrate this standard with writing standards by creating an assignment in which students must write a persuasive piece (letter, essay, etc.). Ask them to use ethos, pathos, and logos in their own writing and identify each section where they do so. When students apply these techniques to their own work, it will help them recognize them in historical documents or other kinds of nonfiction.