From 11:00PM PDT on Friday, July 1 until 5:00AM PDT on Saturday, July 2, the Shmoop engineering elves will be making tweaks and improvements to the site. That means Shmoop will be unavailable for use during that time. Thanks for your patience!
President John Adams signed the Alien and Sedition Acts into law in 1798 in an effort to silence opposition to his administration's foreign and domestic policies. Painting by Samuel F.B. Morse, 1816. Public domain.