The harlequin is a Russian man who helps Kurtz and is considered his "disciple." He dresses in colorful patched clothing, which earns him his nickname of – yes, you got it – the harlequin. He worships Kurtz much like the native Africans do and finds himself listening more than speaking. In fact, exclusively listening and not speaking at all. Thus, he is privy to many of Kurtz’s thoughts. Like many of the other characters, he has a tendency to babble, but Marlow tolerates the harlequin because he knows so much about Kurtz.
The harlequin’s catchphrase is that Kurtz has "enlarged my mind." This paints Kurtz as a guru possessing arcane and mystical knowledge. The harlequin’s motley set of clothing also hints at his role as something of a court jester for Kurtz, a clown not to be taken seriously. He acts only as a conduit of information for Marlow.
The text also suggests that the harlequin’s patchwork attire might be an echo of the colored regions of the map seen earlier. This is reinforced by the fact that he is Russian (or not European, and therefore a foreigner) and that the manager distrusts him simply for that fact.