R.M. Ballantyne: The Coral Island – the names “Ralph,” “Jack,” and “Simon” (2.59; 12.247) – The Coral Island was a classic 1857 “Europe can better the world through conquering it and forcing Christianity upon everyone” book. Golding read it when he was a wee boy, considered it racist, and fashioned Lord of the Flies so that it would function as a “screw you” to Ballantyne. While the boys in The Coral Island encounter evil “primitives” (read: natives) and find a happy ending by burning “the false Gods” of the inhabitants, the boys in Lord of the Flies, the white boys, realize that they are evil themselves. Golding argues that darkness is internal and inherent, not something you can attribute solely to those with a different skin color than you.
The Bible – the name “Simon”
Robert Louis Stevenson: Treasure Island (2.57)
Arthur Ransome: Swallows and Amazons (2.58)