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Citations

1 See Benjamin Parke De Witt, The Progressive Movement: A Non-Partisan, Comprehensive Discussion of Current Tendencies in American Politics (New York: Macmillan, 1915).
2 Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:605.
3 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:517.
4 Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923), 261 U.S. 525.
5 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
6 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
7 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
8 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 608.
9 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 590.
10 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 590.
11 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 590.
12 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 590.
13 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:517.
14 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:499.
15 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:499.
16 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:499.
17 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:499.
18 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 654.
19 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 581-4.
20 John Higham, Strangers in the Land; Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1955), 116.
21 Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:582.
22 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 516.
23 Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, 157 U.S. 429 (1895).
24 Patricia O'Toole, When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt After the White House (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 158.
25 See Kathleen E. Kendall, Communication in the Presidential Primaries: Candidates and the Media (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000), 12-13.
26 See “Biography of Theodore Roosevelt,” The White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/tr26.html, accessed 4 February 2008.
27 Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:591.
28 See Wesley Clair Mitchell and Oswald Whitman Knauth, Income in the United States, Its Amount and Distribution, 1909-1919, Vol. II, by the staff of the National Bureau of Economic Research, ed. Wesley C. Mitchell (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1922), Table 26H, p. 338; National Education Association, "Today's Education," Journal of the National Education Association (January-December 1928), 27.
29 See Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black/White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), Chapter XII: "Radical Swan Song: Radicalism and Conservatism in Washington Under Woodrow Wilson," 364-98.
30 President Woodrow Wilson before a joint session of Congress to seek a Declaration of War against Germany, 2 April 1917, Sixty-Fifth Congress, 1 Session, Senate Document No. 5, available online from History Matters at [Accessed 4 February 2008].
31 See Carlos A. Schwantes, "Toil and Trouble: Rhythms of Work Life," in Bisbee: Urban Outpost on the Frontier (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1992); Lynn R Bailey, Bisbee, Queen of the Copper Camps (Tucson, AZ: Westernlore Press, 1983); John H. Lindquist and James Fraser, "A Sociological Interpretation of the Bisbee Deportation," The Pacific Historical Review 37:4 (November 1968), pp. 401-422; Annie M. Cox, History of Bisbee, 1877 to 1937 (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, 1938).
32 James W. Byrkit, Forging the Copper Collar: Arizona's Labor Management War of 1901-1921 (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1982); Arnon Gutfield, "The Murder of Frank Little: Radical Labor Agitator in Butte, Montana, 1917," Labor History 10:2 (1969), 177-192.
33 Randolph Bourne, "The War and the Intellectuals," Seven Arts 2 (1917): 133-136.
34 Woodrow Wilson, address to the U.S. Senate on the Treaty of Versailles, 10 July 1919, available from History Matters at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4979/, accessed 5 February 2008].
35 Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Political And Social Growth Of The United States 1852-1933 (New York: Hewlett Press, 2007), 451.
36 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 516-7; Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:445-7.
37 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 516-7; Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:445-7.
38 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:447.
39 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
40 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:460.
41 See "The Homestead Letters" excerpted at Andrew Carnegie, American Experience, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_letters.html, accessed 19 February 2008.
42 Allan Nevins, John D. Rockefeller (New York: Scribner, 1959), I:622.
43 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:440.
44 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
45 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 536.
46 Munn v. Illinois (1877) 94 U.S. 113, Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois (1886), 118 U.S. 557.
47 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 537.
48 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 537.
49 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 537.
50 Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty! An American History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 537-8.
51 Muller v. Oregon (1908), 208 U.S. 412.
52 See "The blue book"; Woman Suffrage, History, Arguments and Results, eds. Frances M. Bjorkman and Annie G. Porritt (New York: National Woman Suffrage Publishing Co., 1917).
53 Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923), 261 U.S. 525.
54 Thomas Bell, Out of This Furnace (1941; Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1976), 150.
55 Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:473.
56 See Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:585.
57 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
58 Thomas Bell, Out of This Furnace (1941; Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1976), 47.
59 Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:473-4.
60 Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:473-4.
61 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:576.
62 See Price V. Fishback and Shawn Everett Kantor, "The Adoption of Workers' Compensation in the United States 1900-1930," Journal of Law and Economics 41:2, part 2 (October 1998): 305-341.
63 See Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:572.
64 See Gabriel Kolko, The Triumph of Conservatism (New York: Free Press of Glencoe,1963).
65 Leon F. Litwack and Winthrop D. Jordan, The United States: Becoming a World Power, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991), II:572.
66 William Howard Taft, "American President: An Online Reference Resource," The Miller Center for Public Affairs, University of Virginia, http://millercenter.virginia.edu/academic/americanpresident/taft/essays/biography/4, accessed 28 January 2008].
67 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
68 See Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People, 4th ed., (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), II:567.
69 Allan Nevins, John D. Rockefeller (New York: Scribner, 1959), I:622.
70 The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 5, Poetry and Criticism, 1900-1950, ed. Sacvan Bercovitch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 358.
71 Available from the Avalon Project at Yale Law School, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/taft.htm, accessed 4 February 2008].
72 Audio version available courtesy of the Michigan State University Voice Library; speech transcribed by History Matters, available at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5722, accessed 5 February 2008.
73 Robert La Follette, La Follette's autobiography; a personal narrative of political experiences, by Robert M. La Follette (Madison, WI: The Robert M. La Follette Co., 1913), 674, available from American Memory, the Upper Midwest collection, at the Library of Congress, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2000.03.0032;query=spage%3D%23718;layout=;loc=673, accessed 4 February 2008.
74 Randolph Bourne, "The War and the Intellectuals," Seven Arts 2 (1917): 133-136.
75 Woodrow Wilson, address to the U.S. Senate on the Treaty of Versailles, 10 July 1919, available from History Matters at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4979/, accessed 5 February 2008.
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