Brain surgeons literally control people's ability to use their brains. However, there have been very few new developments in mind control. Luckily, the old practice of giving a patient a lobotomy has become nearly extinct.
A lobotomy is a medical procedure that consists of the brain surgeon cutting connections from the thalamus to the prefrontal cortex. The point of the surgery was to inhibit a patient's ability to feel emotions. Generally, lobotomies were given to patients with severe mental illnesses. During the 1940s and '50s, over 40,000 people received lobotomies.
The movie, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, shoved the ethical implications of this medical procedure into the spotlight. It didn't seem like such a good idea anymore once we saw that it was basically a removal of the patient's personality—even their soul, practically. Not everyone has the greatest personality, but it isn't really the surgeon's place to determine whether or not they get to keep it.
The practice declined thanks to new anti-psychotic drugs that are now on the market.